Confederate Regiments & Batteries * Alabama

The 10th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized in June of 1861 in Alabama and fought through the war until surrendered at Appomattox County House in April of 1865. It mustered 1,429 men during the Civil War, losing around 300 in action and 180 to disease.

June 4 The 10th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Montgomery under Colonel John Horace Forney, Lt. Colonel James Benson Martin and Major John J. Woodward
July Moved to Winchester, Virginia, and attached to brigade of General Kirby Smith
December 20
Battle of Dranesville

The regiment was commanded by Colonel Forney. Lieutenant Colonel James Martin and 21 other men were killed and Captain William Forney and 64 other men were wounded

December 21 Major Woodward promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain William Forney promoted to major
January Attached to Wilcox’s Brigade of Smith’s Division, Potomac District
March Marched to the Peninsula
March 17 Colonel John Forney was promoted to brigadier general, Lt. Colonel John J. Woodward to colonel, Major William H. Forney (John’s brother) to lieutenant colonel and Captain John H. Caldwell of Company A to major.
April 5 – May 4 Shelled in the Yorktown positions
May 5 – 6
Battle of Williamsburg

Lost 85 casualties, including Lt. Colonel William Henry Forney, wounded, and then captured when the hospital at William and Mary College was captured.

June 27
Battle of Gaines’ Mill

The regiment lost 38 men killed and 97 wounded. Colonel Woodward, Captains Francis Pickens Black, Robert W. Cowan and William M. Lee were killed. Captains James B. Farmer and George C. Whatley were wounded.

June 27 Lt. Colonel William Forney, still in Northern captivity, was promoted to colonel, and Major Caldwell was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
June 30
Battle of Frasier’s Farm (Glendale)

The regiment lost 32 men killed and 95 men wounded. Captain John C. McKenzie was killed and Lieutenant Colonel Caldwell was wounded in the head. The colors were captured by the 9th Pennsylvania Reserves Regiment, but survived the war and were returned to the State of Alabama Archives in 2001.

Major Arthur S. Cunningham was assigned to temporary command of the 10th Alabama with the rank of lieutenant colonel due to the high casualties among its officers. He was wounded during the Seven Days and did not return to the regiment.

August 30
Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

The regiment suffered 30 casualties, including Captain Albert Martin, wounded

September 14 – 15
Siege of Harpers Ferry
September 17
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

Commanded by Captain George C. Whatley of Company G, the regiment lost over 50% of about 200 men engaged. Captain Whatley was killed, and Captains Lemuel E. Hamlin and John Oden were wounded

September Colonel Forney exchanged and returned to the regiment
December 13
Battle of Fredericksburg
May 3 – 4
Battle of Salem Church (Bank’s Ford)

Major Jeremiah Henry Johnston Williams commanded the regiment. Captain Walter Cook and 23 other men were killed and 89 wounded out of 400 engaged. The regiment captured 13 officers and 236 men. Private J. W. Brundridge was particularly noted for his conduct in Gen. Wilcox’s report.

June 1 Wilcox’s Brigade of Anderson’s Division transferred to the new Third Army Corps under Lieutenant General A.P. Hill.
June 10 Lieutenant Colonel Caldwell resigned to become State’s Attorney.
July 1-3
Battle of Gettysburg

The regiment 15 killed and 89 wounded out of 450 men engaged, including Colonel William Henry Forney, twice wounded and captured, and Captains William McMillion and Simson G. Yeargain, wounded. Lt. Colonel James Shelley took command when Forney was wounded.

From the brigade monument at Gettysburg:

July 2. Formed line here in forenoon. The 10th and 11th Regiments taking position on the right after a severe skirmish with the Union outpost. Advanced at 6 P. M. and broke the Union line on Emmitsburg Road capturing two guns and pursuing rapidly took many prisoners and six more guns. At Plum Run was met by a heavy fire of artillery and fresh infantry and being unsupported after severe losses fell back without being able to bring off the captured guns.

July 3. Took position west of Emmitsburg Road in support of artillery. Soon after Longstreet’s column started an order was received to advance and support it but smoke hiding the oblique course of Pickett’s Division the Brigade moving straight forward found itself engaged in a separate and useless conflict and was promptly withdrawn.

July 4. In line here all day and at dark began the march to Hagerstown.

September 11 Major Williams resigned.
February The regiment was honored by the thanks of a joint resolution of the Confederate Congress when they reenlisted:

“Resolved by the Congress of the Confederate States of America, That Congress hails with delight the manifestations evinced by the brave and gallant officers and privates of the Ninth regiment, Alabama volunteers, who have stood under the fire of the enemy for nearly 3 years, never to yield to Northern oppression, and for this act of partiotism and exalted self-sacrifice, in re-enlisting for the war, the thanks of Congress and the country are eminently due them. That the example of those brave men who have endured the dangers and perils of the war since its commencement is a happy omen for the future, and should encourage Congress and the country to rest with an abiding hope and confidence in the success of our arms and the final triumph of liberty, under the lead of those brave and unconquerable spirits. Approved February 16, 1864.”

May 5 – 7
Battle of the Wilderness

The regiment suffered about 50 casualties, including Captain John A. Cobb, wounded

May 8-12
Battle of Spotsylvania

The regiment suffered about 60 casualties, including Lieutenant Colonel James E. Shelley, wounded

June 22
Siege of Petersburg

Lieutenant Colonel James E. Shelley was killed.

August Colonel Forney was exchanged and returned to duty with the regiment, although still on crutches. He took command of the brigade as senior colonel.
August 26
Battle of Ream’s Station

Captain James M. Renfro was wounded

September 6 Captain Andrew M. Moore died of disease
October 31 Captain Archer Hayes was temporarily in command of the regiment; Colonel J. Horace King returned to command before end of the year
November 8 Colonel Forney was promoted to brigadier general and continued command of the Alabama Brigade until Appomattox.
February 5 – 7
Battle of Hatcher’s Run

The regiment suffered over a dozen casualties

February 28 Major James M. Crowe temporarily commanding regiment
April 1 – 9
Retreat to Appomattox

The regiment suffered about 30 casualties, including Captain Thomas J. Hickman, wounded

April 9
Appomattox Court House

The 10th Alabama Infantry Regiment surrendered 10 officers and 70 men.