The ancestry of the 1st Virginia Infantry dates back to the 1600s. Its commanders include George Washington and Patrick Henry.

1861
April 19 Ten companies of militia were organized into the 1st Infantry at Richmond under Colonel Patrick T. Moore, Lieutenant Colonel William H. Fry and Major William P. Munford:

Company A, Richmond Grays
Company B, Richmond City Guard
Company C, Montgomery Guard
Company D, Old Dominion Guard
Company E, Richmond Light Infantry Blues
Company F, Captain Cary’s “F Company”;
Company G, Captain William H. Gordon’s company
Company H, Captain Randolph’s Howitzer company
Company I, Captain Robert Morris’ company
Company K, Virginia Rifles

The Richmond Fayette Artillery was also attached to the regiment.

April 21 Company A, Richmond Grays left for Norfolk. In August of 1861, they were assigned to the 12th Regiment of Virginia Volunteers. Company E, the Richmond Light Infantry Blues, and Captain Cary’s Company F, left Richmond for Fredericksburg, and were never returned to the regiment. Company E was replaced by the “Washington Volunteers” for one year’s service.
April 25 The Richmond Fayette Artillery was detached from the regiment, and in May, was stationed at the Richmond College artillery barracks. Captain Randolph’s Howitzers, Company H, went into quarters at the Spotswood Hotel on April 19, but later moved to Richmond College, where they were detached from the regiment and reorganized into an artillery battalion.
April 27 Marched to Camp Lee at the Fair Grounds on the western edge of Richmond.
April 29 The Old Dominion Guard was mustered into service as Company D.
May 4 Captain Francis J. Boggs’ second company of Richmond Grays was assigned to the regiment, replacing Captain Randolph’s Howitzers as Company H.
May 17 Major Munford resigned to become lieutenant colonel of the 17th Virginia Infantry and Frederick G. Skinner was appointed major.
May 25 Eight companies (all except E&F) left by train for Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction.
May 26 Eight companies arrived at Manassas Junctions.
June 20 The regiment was assigned to the Fourth Brigade of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Colonel G.H. Terrett
June 30 Mustered into Confederate service.
July 18 Battle of Blackburn’s Ford

Colonel Patrick T. Moore was badly wounded in the head and disabled from future field service. Lieutenant Colonel Fry took command of the regiment. Captain J.K. Lee of Company B was killed.

July 21 Battle of Manassas

Assigned to Longstreet’s Brigade.

July 24 Moved to Centreville.
July 25 Assigned to the Fourth Brigade of the first Corps of the Army of the Potomac.
August The regiment reported 570 men available for duty.
August 16 Moved to Fairfax Court House.
November 11 Lieutenant Colonel Fry resigned.
November 18 Major Skinner was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain John Dooley of Company C was promoted to major.
1862
April Company E and Company K were disbanded at the expiration of their one year service; the regiment was reorganized with six companies and assigned to A.P. Hill’s Brigade. Major Dooley was dropped.
April – May Siege of Yorktown
April 27 Lieutenant Colonel Lewis B. Williams of the 7th Virginia Infantry was transferred to the 1st Virginia and promoted to colonel. Adjutant William H. Palmer was elected major.
May 5 Battle of Williamsburg

Colonel Williams was badly wounded and captured. Major Palmer took command even though he was slightly wounded.

May 25 Brigadier General A.P. Hill was promoted to division command, and the brigade was taken over by Colonel James Kemper.
May 31-June 1 Battle of Seven Pines
June Colonel Williams was exchanged and returned to command the regiment
June 25-July 1 Seven days before Richmond
June 30 Battle of Frayser’s Farm
August The brigade was under the temporary command of Colonel Montgomery Corse while Brigadier General Kemper took command of a temporary division.
August 30 2nd Battle of Manassas

The regiment lost 28 men of the 140 engaged. Lieutenant Colonel Skinner was badly wounded in the chest and would not return to field service.

September Brigadier General Kemper resumed command of the brigade, which became part of the division of Brigadier General David R. Jones in Longstreet’s Command
September 14 Battle of Boonsborough (South Mountain)

The regiment was commnaded by Captain George F. Norton

September 17 Battle of Sharpsburg

Commanded by Major William Palmer.

November Assigned to Kemper’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, First Army Corps
December 13 Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment lost nine men wounded

1863
April-May Suffolk Campaign
May 2 Major Palmer became A.A.G. to A.P. Hill when Hill was given command of the Third Corps. Captain Francis H. Langley of Company G was promoted to major.
July 3 Battle of Gettysburg

The regiment was commanded by Colonel Lewis B. Williams and brought 209 men to the field. It took part in Pickett’s charge on the right flank of the attacking column, taking heavy casualties from the flanking fire of the Vermont Brigade. The regiment lost 27 men killed, 73 wounded, and 13 missing. Colonel Williams was mortally wounded.

Many of the officers of the regiment became casualties: Major Francis H. Langley was wounded, Captain James Hallihan was killed, Captains Tomas H. Davis, , Eldridge Morris, George Norton and Albert Watkins were wounded, Lieutenants Adolphus Blair, Paul Cabell, John Dooley, Ellison Martin, Jesse Payne, Edward Reeve and William Woody were wounded, Lieutenant William Caho was mortally wounded and captured and Lieutenant William Kenningham was wounded and captured.

From the marker on the Gettysburg battlefield:

July 2. Arrived about sunset and bivouacked on the western border of Spangler’s Woods.

July 3. In the forenoon formed line in the field east of the woods with right flank near Spangler’s Barn. At the close of the cannonade advanced and took part in Longstreet’s assault upon the Union position in the vicinity of the Angle. Exposed to a severe fire of artillery and vigorously assailed beyond the Emmitsburg Road by infantry on the right flank with ranks thinned and much disorganized by its losses especially of officers it pressed on against the Union line at the stone wall where after a fierce encounter the struggle ended. Gen. J. L. Kemper fell wounded in front of the stone wall.

July 4. Spent the day in reorganization and during the night began the march to Hagerstown.

July Escorted prisoners back to Virginia. Lieutenant Colonel Skinner was promoted to colonel even though he was not fit for field duty due to his wound from Second Manassas. Major Langley was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain George F. Norton of Company D was promoted to major.
September Detached from the Army of Northern Virginia and assigned to the Department of Richmond

1864

April 17-20 Battle of Plymouth, N.C.
May 16 Drewry’s Bluff

The regiment lost 12 killed and 25 wounded

May 18 Howlett House
May 22-26 Battle of the North Anna
June 1-3 Battle of Cold Harbor
June 16 Clay Farm
June Siege of Petersburg begins
1865
February 6 Colonel Skinner was officially retired to the Invalid Corps.
March 3 Dinwiddie Court House
April 1 Battle of Five Forks

The regiment lost 1 man killed and 77 wounded.

April 6 Sayler’s Creek

The regiment lost 40 men captured, including Lieuteant Colonel Langey and Major Norton.

April 9 Appomattox Court House

Surrendered 17 men under the command of Sergeant Major Andrew J. Simpson