Pennsylvania Independent Battery F lost 2 officers and 8 enlisted men killed or mortally wounded and 14 enlisted men to disease in the Civil War. It is honored by a monument at Gettysburg.
|October||Recruited at Pittsburg|
|December 7||Organized at Camp Lamon, 1 mile north of Williamsport, Maryland for three years service under Captain Robert B. Hampton, 1st Lieutenants James P. Fleming and Lewis S. Tarr and 2nd Lieutenant Alfred N. Harbours. The battery began drilling with logs mounted on tree stumps.|
|December 15||Duty on the Upper Potomac attached to Banks’ Division, Army of the Potomac|
|December||Captain Hampton led a squad from the battery armed with Belgian rifles to Dam No. 5, which Confederate Brigadier General Jackson had been trying to destroy. Hampton crossed the Potomac into Virginia and burned an old mill that had been used as a Confederate rendezvous.|
|December 28||Lieutenant Tarr was dismissed.|
|January 1||The battery was issued two brass 6-pounders and ordered to join General Lander at Hancock, Maryland.|
|January 4-6||Helped drive off Jackson’s men from Hancock, then returned to Williamsport.|
|January 27||Broke camp at Williamsport and marched to Hagerstown, Maryland.|
|February 1||The battery was issued six 10-pounder Parrott Rifles, 110 horses, a battery wagon, forge, and harness. First Lieutenant Nathaniel Irish and a squad of men joined the battery. Lieutenant Irish commanded the left section and Lieutenant Fleming the right section.|
|February 12||Left camp at Hagerstown and marched to Boonsboro, Maryland.|
|February 13||Marched through Middletown, Maryland, over South Mountain and reached Frederick in the evening. They were greeted by Thompson’s battery with hot coffee. The battery gave two Parrotts to Thompson’s battery, who as yet were unequipped.|
|February 22||Celebrated Washington’s Birthday with a 34 gun salute.|
|February 24||Guns and heavy equipment were shipped by train to Harpers Ferry while the men moved across country with the horses.|
|March||Attached to Artillery, 1st Division, Banks’ 5th Army Corps, and Dept. of the Shenandoah|
|March 1-12||Advance on Winchester|
|March 1||The battery was the first across the new pontoon bridge at Harpers Ferry. The guns were taken across by hand due to concerns that the bridge would not bear the combined weight of the guns and teams. The band played Dixie while the column crossed into Virginia. The battery took position on Bolivar Heights that evening.|
|March 2||Marched to Charlestown with two regiments of infantry and a regiment of cavalry.|
|March 5||Passed through Smithville to Camp Hamilton.|
|March 8||Marched to bunker Hill|
|March 11||Brigadier General Williams sent a flag of truce to Winchester warning women and children to evacuate the town, as it would be attacked the next day. The army bivouacked five miles north of town that night after driving off a small group of Confederate cavalry.|
Occupation of Winchester
Formed line of battle and moved into Winchester, which had been evacuated by Jackson. It was the first of dozens of times in the war Winchester would change hands.
|March 22||Marched 16 miles to Snicker’s Ferry with a forage train and went into camp there on finding the bridge over the Shenandoah had been damaged.|
|March 25||Ordered to return to Winchester but were halted after marching five miles to Berryville.|
|March 28||Returned to Snicker’s Ferry and crossed the Shenandoah on the repaired bridge, continuing across the Blue Ridge at Snickers Gap.|
|March 29||Marched through Centerville|
|March 30||Crossed Bull Run and occupied quarters there|
|April 1-4||Ordered to return to Winchester. Retraced the route through Centerville and Snicker’s Gap to Winchester, a total of 56 miles.|
|April 6-15||Marched south to Cedar Creek, Strasburg and Woodstock, skirmishing each day with the enemy.|
|April 16||Reconnoitered two miles south of Edinburg, driving back a large force of Confederate Cavalry.|
|April 19||Marched to Lacy’s Springs and fought a large skirmish with cavalry and infantry.|
|April 20-30||Reconnoitered to Harrisonburg and beyond to McGaugheysville.|
|May 5-June 17||Operations in the Shenandoah Valley|
|May 5||Marched down the Valley to New Market.|
|May 6||Moved east across Massanutton Mountain, but immediately recrossed and returned to New Market, marched to Strasburg, then countermarched to Fisher’s Hill, taking a position covering the road to Woodstock.|
Action at Newtown and Middletown
Marched to Strasburg and continued north but found a large body of Confederates blocking the advance three miles north of Strasburg and about a mile north of the turnpike’s crossing of Cedar Creek. After shelling the enemy for an hour the battery was forced to withdraw south to the high ground on the south side of Cedar Creek. The battery stayed here until dusk, firing at the Confederates, then in the darkness moved west around the Confederate flank and continued its march 22 miles to Winchester on side roads, which it reached around 1 a.m. Captain Hampton with the battery wagon, 18 men and a rearguard of cavalry were cut off and were forced to take the road to Romney out of the Valley in the mountains to the northwest. Lieutenant J. Presley Flaming would command the battery until Captain Hampton returned.
Battle of Winchester
Reached Winchester around 4 a.m.and took position on the left of the turnpike. The Confederates advanced on the town at dawn. After two hours of fighting one section under Lieutenant Irish was sent to a hill southwest of town. The Union line was forced to withdraw when it was outflanked, and the battery acted as a rearguard during the retreat, firing canister point blank into pursuers. Six men were wounded by small arms, none seriously. The battery retreated 24 miles to Martinsburg that night. Corporal Wallace was killed while blowing up the fort to keep it out of Confederate hands.
|May 26||Reached the Potomac River opposite Williamsport, Maryland around 2 a.m. Crossed the river and took position to cover the Martinsburg Road.|
|May 29||Captain Hampton rejoined the battery after several days behind enemy lines that led him in a wide 84 mile detour through Hancock, Maryland. The battery wagon and another loaded with ordnance stores and camp equipment had to be abandoned. One enlisted man was wounded and four missing.|
|June||Attached to Artillery, 2nd Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Virginia|
|June 1||Recrossed the Potomac and marched to Martinsburg, going into camp north of town.|
|June 5-6||Marched to Winchester. Camped on the Romney Road a mile outside town.|
|June 9||Marched to Front Royal, camping on the Shenandoah River.|
|June 25||Took up position overlooking both branches of the Shenandoah River near Front Royal.|
|June 29||Reconnaissance 19 miles toward Luray, halting one mile short of town.|
|June 30||Returned to Front Royal.|
|July-August||At Front Royal|
|July 4||Fired a National Salute at dawn and spent the day in long range target practice.|
|July 6||Ordered to Warrenton, marching about eight miles from Front Royal before night.|
|July 7||Marched to Gaines Cross Roads.|
|July 11||Crossed the Rappahannock and countermarched to Gaines Cross Roads.|
|July 12||Returned to camp outside Front Royal|
|July 13||Moved into Front Royal due to a threat of attack.|
|July 17||Marched to Sandy Hook. Lieutenant Jose[h L. Miller and 51 men joined the battery, becoming the center section. The battery began marching to Little Washington.|
|July 18||Countermarched to Waterloo Bridge.|
|August 10||Arrived at the Cedar Mountain battlefield.|
|August 16-September 2||Pope’s Campaign in Northern Virginia|
|August 20||Marched to Sulphur Springs and joined General Sigel’s command.|
|August 22||Fight at Freeman’s Ford|
White Sulphur Springs
The battery lost William Hastings mortally wounded, with both legs shot off, and two men wounded in an artillery duel across the Rappahannock which drove off the Confederate artillery.
|August 25||Waterloo Bridge|
|August 26||Marched to Warrenton|
|August 27||Marched to Manassas Junction and took position in line of battle.|
2nd Battle of Bull Run
Took position on the extreme right of the line. After an intense duel with three enemy batteries drove off enemy skirmishers. In late afternoon moved to the support of General Milroy, opening fire at point blank range on attackers from Confederate General Law’s brigade. The far left gun became jammed against a stump and could not be withdrawn, and was abandoned to the attackers by order of General Milroy. Corporal Henry Hess was shot in the head and killed as the limber withdrew.
During the withdrawal an enemy line emerged from the woods, and the battery unlimbered a fired double-shooted canister into them, halting their advance, before continuing its withdrawal. A gun broke its axel crossing a ditch, but was saved by slinging it from a limber. The battery joined 80 Union guns in a massed battery in he rear of the Union line while the disabled gun was moved to the rear. After the fighting died down at dusk the battery removed a short distance to the rear to bivouac.
2nd Battle of Bull Run (continued)
Took position in line with McDowell’s Corps. After three hours of fighting the entire army began too fall back. The battery withdrew as part of an orderly column across the Stone Bridge at Bull Run and about 5 miles to Centerville. After a hat to let Porter’s Corps pass by they continued to fall back to east of Centerville, where the battery bivouacked.
|August 31||The right section marched to the front and took position in line. The left section, battery wagon and forge marched via Fairfax Court House to Alexandria.|
The right section was engaged, then moved to Alexandria at the close of the battle.
|September 3||The right section moved to Georgetown and bivouacked in the rear of Fort Richardson.|
|September 6||The right section formed line of battle on the field.
The left section, battery wagon and forge moved to Washington, D.C. and camped near the Capitol Building, where the section was refitted.
|September||Maryland Campaign; attached to Artillery, 2nd Division, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac|
|September 9||The right section moved to Middlebrook and bivouacked.|
|September 10||The battery moved to Damascus.|
|September 12||Went into camp near Jamesville.|
|September 13||Marched to Frederick.|
|September 14||Marched to South Mountain.|
|September 15||Marched to Keedysville.|
|September 16||Formed line of battle.|
The battery brought four 10-pounder Parrott Rifles and 79 men to the field. It was placed on the right of the Union line and given the task of keeping a part of the Confederate line free of artillery. The guns opened at around 7 a.m., and the battery successfully accomplished its orders, firing 217 rounds into the area around the Dunker Church and losing 3 men wounded.
|September 19||Moved via Sharpsburg to Brownsville, then crossed Maryland Heights to Sandy Hook.|
|September 22||Moved to Maryland Heights.|
|September 28||Returned to Sandy Hook.|
|October 2||Returned to Maryland Heights.|
|October 21||Reconnoissance to Loudon Valley, returning to Maryland Heights.|
|October 30||Camped on Bolivar Heights|
|November 9||Reconnaissance to Rippon, about 6 miles north of Berryville.|
|November 26||Reconnaissance to Charlestown.|
|December 2-6||Reconnaissance to Winchester. The expedition, commanded by General Geary and consisting of over 3,000 men and three batteries, skirmishing with Confederate cavalry on several occasions. It caused a number of casualties and captured many prisoners with no loss.|
|December 9-16||March to Fredericksburg|
|December 9||Marched to Hillsboro|
|December 12||March to Leesburg|
|December 13||March to Fairfax Court House|
|December 14||March to Dumfries|
|December 17||Countermarched to Occoquan Creek|
|December 18||Marched to Fairfax Station|
|December 19||Marched to Stafford Court House|
|December 26||Marched to Aquia Creek Landing|
|December 27||Made winter camp at Aquia Creek Landing, the main point of supply for the Army of the Potomac.|
|February-April||At Stafford Court House|
|April 27-May 6||
|April 29||Crossed the Rappahannock River with the 12th corps train over a pontoon bridge at United States Ford.|
|April 30||Joined the 12th Corps at Chancellorsville.|
Took position next to Knap’s Battery on rising ground at the intersection about 250 yards from the Chancellor House. The battery was heavily engaged in the afternoon in support of Geary’s Division.
Battle of Chancellorsville (continued)
Posted on a ridge behind Chancellorsville becoming part of a grand battery of 34 guns posted along Fairview Ridge to stem Jackson’s advance. Engaged during the day holding off Confederate attacks. At night the line entrenched.
Battle of Chancellorsville (continued)
Early in the morning the Union position at Hazel Grove was overrun and guns there were turned against the rest of the line. Confederate flanking fire raked the Union batteries. Captain Hampton was mortally wounded, struck by a shell which severed his leg and almost cut his horse in two. He was taken to the rear but would die in less than an hour. The fighting continued for another hour as the batteries were instructed to ignore the heavy fire from Hazel Grove and concentrate on the advancing Southern infantry, buying time for the extended and partially surrounded Union forces to withdraw to safety. Finally the Federal batteries were withdrawn, low on ammunition and with their teams and crews being picked off. Lieutenant Irish covered the withdrawal with his section, firing while withdrawing by prolongue in good order.
In addition to Captain Hampton one enlisted man was killed and seven wounded, three seriously. One caisson was exploded and a second disabled, and the loss of 30 horses killed or disabled forced the abandonment of a third caisson. Lieutenant Fleming took over command of the battery, which was taken to the rear.
|May 5||Recrossed the Rappahannock at United States Ford and were positioned to cover the pontoon bridge and ford from the north bank, which were being used by all of Hooker’s army to withdraw.|
|May 6||Daylight revealed the Confederates digging in on high ground across the river. The three Federal batteries (Hampton’s, Knap’s and Thompson’s) engaged the Confederate guns, which were soon abandoned by their crews. When the last Union troops crossed the river and the pontoon bridge was taken up the battery returned to its camp at Aquia Creek.|
|May 24||First Lieutenant Nathaniel Irish was promoted to captain.|
|June 3||The battery was consolidated with Thompson’s Pennsylvania Independent Battery C due to heavy casualties. Twenty-four men were temporarily attached to Captain Huntington’s Ohio Light Artillery, Battery H. Lieutenant Fleming resigned and First Sergeant Robert Paul was promoted to lieutenant to replace him. The combined batteries were assigned to the 1st Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac.|
The battery moved north from Falmouth in response to Lee’s invasion of Pennsylvania.
The battery reached Taneytown, just south of the Gettysburg battlefield. The combined Batteries F&C were commanded by Captain James Thompson. They brought six 3″ Ordnance rifles to the field.
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)
The battery went into position in the Peach Orchard in support of Sickles’ 3rd Corps. Two guns were faced west and four faced south. When Longstreet’s attack was launched in the afternoon the battery fought for an for at the apex of the Union salient. The battery was eventually forced to withdraw, leaving one gun behind whose team had been killed which would be recovered after the battle. Fourteen men were killed or wounded in the Peach Orchard. Captain irish, serving as aide to Artillery commander Lieutenant Colonel Freeman McGilvery, was struck on the thigh by a solid shot but refused to leave the field until order to do so, then returned on the morning of July 3.
The battery made a fighting withdrawal to the line set up by Lt. Colonel McGilvery on Cemetery Ridge. It stayed in that position until nightfall, at which time it was out of ammunition and was withdrawn.
It was during this fighting withdrawal that Casper R. Carlisle of Battery F earned the Medal of Honor when he saved a gun of the battery under heavy musketry fire, most of the horses being killed and the drivers wounded.
From the monument:
From June 3 1863 to March 25 1864 Batteries F and C served as a consolidated battery. July 2. Occupied this position from about 5 to 6 O’Clock p.m. July 3. With the left centre on Cemetery Ridge on left of First Volunteer Brigade Reserve Artillery marked by tablet. 24 men from Battery F were detailed to Battery H 1st Ohio Artillery posted in the cemetery during the battle.
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)
The battery was moved to the center of the Union line in support of the 2nd Corps just south of the Copse of Trees where it helped repel Pickett’s Charge. Captain Thompson was wounded and Lieutenant Joseph L. Miller and six enlister men were mortally wounded (see monument below).
A third monument along Hancock Avenue on the Gettysburg battlefield marks the location of the battery on July 3:
Position occupied Indp’t Pa. Art’y F
Organized at Pittsburgh, Pa. Oct. 8th 1861.
On this field the following members fell
|July 26||Second Lieutenant joseph Miller resigned. Sergeant Samuel Glass was promoted to second lieutenant as his replacement.|
|September 13-17||Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan|
|November 9-22||Bristoe Campaign|
|October 14||Auburn and Bristoe; attached to Artillery Brigade, 2nd Army Corps|
|November 7-8||Advance to line of the Rappahannock|
|November 9||Seargent Frederick Atwood was promoted to First Lieutenant.|
|November 26-27||Mine Run|
|November 29-30||White Hall Church|
|February 6-7||Demonstration on the Rapidan, Morton’s Ford|
|February-July||At Camp Barry, Washington, D.C. to recruit and reorganize.|
|March 24||Separated from Pennsylvania Independent Battery C and restored to an independent command under Captain Nathaniel Irish. The battery was not yet assigned ordnance but was equipped with Springfield rifles. Assigned to the Defenses of Washington south of the Potomac, 22nd Corps.|
|May||Attached to 2nd Brigade, DeRussy’s Division, 22nd Corps|
|July||Duty at Harper’s Ferry, W. Va. attached to Reserve Division, Dept. of West Virginia.|
|Fall||The battery was rearmed with 3″ Ordnance rifles. The detailed men who had been serving with the 1st Ohio Artillery, Battery H returned.|
|January||Attached to 1st Separate Brigade, 3rd Division, West Virginia. Lieutenants Robert Paul and Samuel Glass mustered out.|
|February 25||Sergeants Frank Merrick, George Ritchie and Frank Shiras were promoted to Second Lieutenant.|
|March||Separated from Pennsylvania Independent Battery C and attached to Artillery Reserve, Army of the Shenandoah|
|April||Attached to 3rd Brigade, Hardins’ Division, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington|
|April 19||A detachment of picked men from the battery served as mounted guard of honor escorting President Lincoln’s casket from the White House to the train.|
|June 26||Mustered out at Pittsburg.|