The 5th United States Cavalry Regiment lost 7 officers and 60 enlisted men killed or mortally wounded and 2 officers and 90 enlisted men to disease in the Civil War. It is honored by a monument at Gettysburg.

The regiment began the war as the 2nd United States Cavalry and was renamed in August of 1861 when the regiments of Dragoons and Mounted Rifles were redesignated as cavalry. It took part in 125 battles during the Civil War in which one or both participants suffered casualties. Its command changed 34 times during the war, and was usually held by a captain or lieutenant.

1861
August 3 Organized by direction of the President from the 2nd United States Cavalry, whose name was given up to the 2nd United States Dragoons.
September Duty in Defenses of Washington, D.C.
September 11 Lewinsville, Va. (Co. H)
September 25 Reconnaissance to Lewinsville
October Attached to Stoneman’s Cavalry Command, Army Potomac
1862
January Attached to Cooke’s Cavalry Reserve, Army Potomac
March Attached to Cooke’s Cavalry Reserve, 1st Brigade
March 14-16 Reconnaissance to Cedar Run
April 5-May 4 Siege of Yorktown, Va.
May 5 Battle of Williamsburg
May 27 Hanover Court House
May 27-29 Operations about Hanover Court House
May 28 Ashland
June 13-15 Operations against Stuart
June 13 Old Church, Hanover Court House, and Haw’s Shop
June 15 Haw’s Shop
June 25-July 1 Seven days before Richmond
June 27
Gaines’ Mill

Commanded by Captain Charles J. Whiting and consisting of 220 men, the regiment charged Hood’s Texas Brigade, which had broken the Federal lines. Fifty-eight men were casualties, including all but one of the regiment’s officers, but the charge slowed the Confederate attack and allowed many of the Federal guns to be withdrawn.

Before the war Hood had served as a lieutenant under Whiting in the old 2nd U.S. Cavalry.

July 3 Sycamore Church and White Oak Swamp Bridge
July 4 White Oak Swamp Bridge
July 5 Malvern Hill
July Attached to 1st Brigade, Cavalry Division, Army Potomac
July 16 Reconnaissance from Westover
September 6-22 Maryland Campaign. Attached to 1st Brigade, Pleasanton’s Cavalry Division, Army Potomac
September 10-11 Sugar Loaf Mountain near Frederick
September 16-17
Battle of Antietam

The regiment was commanded by Captain Joseph H. McArthur (USMA ’49)

 

From the brigade marker on the Antietam battlefield:

The Fifth United States Cavalry, Captain Joseph H. McArthur, commanding, crossed the Middle Bridge over the Antietam shortly before noon and took position on the right of the road, its left resting at this point, in support to the Artillery in its front. It was withdrawn across the creek late in the day.

The Sixth United States Cavalry, Captain William P. Sanders, commanding, was detached and deployed in skirmishing order, as a Provost Guard, in rear of the right wing of the Army of the Potomac.

September 19-20 Shepherdstown Ford
October 6 and 16 Charlestown
October 16-17 Kearneysville and Shepherdstown (Detachment)
November Attached to Averill’s Cavalry Brigade, Army of the Potomac
November 2-3 Bloomfield and Upperville
November 4 Manassas Gap and Markham Station
November 5-6 Manassas Gap, Barbee’s Cross Roads, Chester Gap and Markham
November 7 Waterloo Bridge
November 8 Little Washington
November 24-25 Reconnaissance from Sharpsburg to Smithfield, W. Va.
December 11-15 Battle of Fredericksburg
December 29-30 Expedition from Potomac Creek to Richards and Ellis Fords, Rappahannock River
1863
January 8-10 Reconnaissance to Catlett’s and Rappahannock Stations (Detachment)
January 9 Near Grove Church (Detachment)
February Attached to Reserve Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army Potomac
March 17 Kelly’s Ford
April 27-May 8 Chancellorsville Campaign
April 29-May 8 Stoneman’s Raid
April 29 Brandy Station
April 30 Raccoon Ford (Detachment)
June 9
Battle of Brandy Station

Commanded by Captain James E. Harrison.

June 11-21 Expedition from Point Lookout, Md., to Pope’s Creek (Detachment)
June 19 Middleburg
June 21 Upperville
July 1-3
Battle of Gettysburg

Commanded by Captain Julius W. Mason.

From the monument on the South Cavalry Battlefield at Gettysburg:

July 3 Moved with the Brigade at 12m. under Brig. General W. Merritt from Emmitsburg and attacked the Confederate right and rear and was engaged for four hours until the action was brought to a close by a heavy rain.

Casualties: wounded 4 men missing 1 man

July 6 Williamsport, Md.
July 8 Boonesboro
July 9 Benevola or Beaver Creek
July 10-13 At and near Funkstown
July 14 Falling Waters
July 21-22 Manassas Gap, Va.
July 23 Wapping Heights
July 31-August 1 Kelly’s Ford
August 1-4 Brandy Station
September 13-17 Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan
October 9-22 Bristoe Campaign
October 17 Manassas Junction
October 18 Bristoe Station
November 7-8 Advance to line of the Rappahannock
November 26-December 2 Mine Run Campaign
1864
February 6-7 Demonstration on the Rapidan, Barnett’s Ford
February 28-
March 1
Custer’s Raid in Albemarle County
February 29 Charlottesville, Stannardsville near Taylortown
March 1 Stannardsville
May 4-June 12 Rapidan Campaign
May 5-7 Wilderness
May 7-8 Todd’s Tavern
May 9-24 Sheridan’s Raid to James River
May 10 Davenport Bridge, North Anna River
May 11 Ground Squirrel Church and Yellow Tavern
May 12 Mechanicsville
May 26-28 Line of the Pamunkey
May 27 Hanovertown Ferry and Hanovertown
May 28 Haw’s Shop
May 28-31 Totopotomoy
May 30 Old Church and Mattadequin Creek
May 31-June 1 Cold Harbor
June 7-24 Sheridan’s Trevillian Raid
June 11-12 Trevillian Station.
June 11-21 Expedition from Point Lookout to Pope’s Creek (Detachment)
June 12 Mallory’s Cross Roads
June 21 Black Creek or Tunstall Station and White House or St. Peter’s Church
June 23 Jones’ Bridge
July-August Siege of Petersburg
July 27-28 Deep Bottom
July 28 Malvern Hill
August 7-November 28 Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Attached to 3rd (Reserve) Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army Shenandoah, Middle Military Division
August 11 Near Newtown
August 14 Near Strasburg
August 25 Near Kearneysville
September 13 Locke’s Ford, Opequan Creek
September 15 Sevier’s Ford, Opequan Creek
September 19
Third Battle of Winchester (Opequan)
September 21
Fisher’s Hill
September 22 Milford
September 23 Front Royal
September 24 Luray Valley
September 26-27 Port Republic
September 28 Rockfish Gap
October 2 Mt. Crawford
October 8-9 Tom’s Brook, Woodstock Races
October 16-18 Expedition into Surrey County
October 19
Battle of Cedar Creek
November 11 Near Kernstown
November 28-December 3 Expedition into Loudoun and Fauquier Counties
December 19-28 Expedition from Winchester to near Gordonsville
December 22 Liberty Mills
December 23 Near Gordonsville
1865
February 27-
March 25
Sheridan’s Raid from Winchester
March 2 Occupation of Staunton, Action at Waynesboro
March 8 Duguidsville
March 28-April 9 Appomattox Campaign. Attached to 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army Potomac
March 30-31 Dinwiddie Court House
April 1
Five Forks
April 2 Scott’s Cross Roads
April 4 Tabernacle Church or Beaver Pond Creek
April 4-5 Amelia Springs
April 6 Sailor’s Creek
April 8 Appomattox Station
April 9
Appomattox Court House

Surrender of Lee and his army.

April 23-29 Expedition to Danville
May March to Washington, D.C.
May 23 Grand Review