Confederate Regiments & Batteries * Texas

The Texas regiments of the Army of Northern Virginia are honored by monuments on the Manassas battlefieldAntietam battlefield, on the Gettysburg battlefield, and on the Wilderness battlefield

Spring The regiment formed with twelve companies under Colonel Louis Trezevant Wigfall and Lieutenant Colonel Hugh McLeod (West Point Class of 1835).
Spring and summer The companies of the regiment moved individually to Virginia.
August Ten companies of the regiment assembled at Richmond, Virginia, inlcuding:Company A – “Marion Rifles” – Captain Harvey H. Black
Company D – Captain Albert G. Clopton
Company G – Captain John R. Woodward
Company H – “Texas Guards” – Captain Alexis T. Rainey
Company I – Captain Richard W. Cotton
Company M – Captain Howard Ballenger
October 1 Captain Alexis T. Rainey of Company H was promoted to major
November 13 Colonel Wigfall was promoted to brigadier general and given command of the Texas Brigade. Lieutenant Colonel McLeod was promoted to colonel, Major Alexis Rainey to lieutenant colonel, and Captain Harvey H. Black of Company A to major.
January 2 Colonel Hugh McLeod died of pneumonia at Dumfries, Virginia. Lieutenant Colonel Alexis Rainey was promoted to colonel, Major Harvey Black to lieutenant colonel and Captain Albert G. Clopton of Company D to major
February 20 Brigadier General Wigfall resigned his commission to take his seat in the Confederate Senate. Colonel John B. Hood of the 4th Texas took over the brigade as senior colonel.
March 3 Colonel Hood was promoted to brigadier general, commanding the 1st, 4th and 5th Texas and the 18th Georgia.
April The regiment was attached to Hood’s Brigade of Smith’s Division.  It mustered 477 men.
May 7
Eltham’s Landing

Lieutenant Colonel Harvey H. Black was killed. Major Albert Clopton was promoted to lieutenant colonel.

May Lieutenant Colonel Albert Clopton resigned. A medical doctor with a degree from Tulane University, he was commissioned a surgeon in 1863 and joined the medical department.
May 16 Regimental reorganizaions were held throughout the army.Captain Philip A. Work of Company F was was elected lieutenant colonel
Captain Matthew Dale of Company G was elected major.

Regimental Sergeant Major George T. Todd was elected captain of Company A
Lieutenant David K. Rice was elected captain of Company C
Lieutenant U.S. Connally was elected captain of Company D
Lieutenant Samuel A. Wilson was elected captain of Company F
Lieutenant William H. Gaston was elected captain of Company H
Lieutenant William H. Bedell was elected captain of Company L

May 19
May 28 Brigadier General W.H.C. Whiting took over the division.
June 27
Gaines’ Mill

Colonel Alexis Rainey was wounded. He returned to Texas on disability and never returned to the field. Lieutenant Colonel Philip Work took command of the regiment but could not be promoted to colonel, as Rainey was still carried on the regimental roster as absent on disability.

Lieutenant Jonh H. Massey was elected captain of Company I.

July 26 Brigadier General Whiting went on sick leave, and Brigadier General Hood took over the division as senior brigade commander. The division was assigned to Longstreet’s command.
August 30
Second Battle of Manassas

Colonel William T. Wofford of the 18th Georgia commanded the brigade as senior colonel while Brigadier General Hood commanded the division.

September 14
Battle of South Mountain
September 17
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The 1st Texas was commanded at Sharpsburg by Lieutenant Colonel Philip A. Work. It took part in Hood’s counterattack in Miller’s Cornfield against Hooker’s First Corps, stopping their advance and driving them back to their artillery supports before withdrawing under heavy fire. But it was at a heavy cost, losing 186 men of the 226 men engaged. Eight color bearers were shot down, and the regiment’s flag was left behind in the Cornfield. The 82% casualty rate is the highest suffered by a regiment in a single day by either side during the war.

Lieutenants Robert H. Gaston, F.L. Hoffman, Samuel F. Patton, Clinton Perry, J. Perry Runnels, Thomas P. Sanford and James C.S. Thompson were killed. Major Matthew Dale, Captain Richard Cotton and Lieutenant James Waterhouse were mortally wounded.

Captains William Bedell of Company L and Howard Ballinger of Company M were wounded and captured. Captains John H. Massey of Company I, George T. Todd of Company A, and Samuel A. Wilson of Company F, and Lieutenants Elbert Jemison, Thomas Rose and Berry Webb were wounded.

From the first of two markers to the brigade on the Antietam battlefield:

September 16, 1862.

On the approach of the First Army Corps on the evening of the 16th, Wofford’s Brigade advanced and formed line in the south edge of the Cornfield, its left on the Hagerstown Pike. The 4th Texas, deployed as skirmishers, encountered the advance of Seymour’s Brigade and was forced back but, reenforced by the 5th Texas on its right, held the East Woods until darkness put an end to the engagement. At 10 P. M. the Brigade was relieved by Lawton’s Brigade and withdrew to the woods west of Dunkard Church.

From the second brigade marker:

September 17, 1862.

At 7 A.M., Wofford’s Brigade, advancing from the woods in rear of the Dunkard Church, crossed the Hagerstown Pike near the church and, moving north, its left (Hampton Legion) resting on the Pike, relieved Lawton’s and Hays’ Brigades of Ewell’s Division, about 145 to 160 yards south of this and engaged the Union line in the cornfield about 75 yards north of this road. The 5th Texas was sent to the assistance of Law’s Brigade on the right. The four remaining Regiments maintained a contest rarely equalled in warfare. They penetrated the cornfield, the 1st Texas advancing to its northern edge, but their advance was checked. After losing more than one half its numbers, the Brigade fell back to the fields southwest of the Dunkard Church, and was not again engaged. The Brigade went into action numbering 854; its loss in killed, wounded and missing was 560. The 1st Texas carried into action 226 officers and men, of whom 186 were killed or wounded.

After the battle Captain Frederick S. Bass of Company E (VMI Class of 1851) was promoted to major.

October 10 Brigadier General Hood was promoted to major general and given permanent command of the division.
November 7 Brigadier General Jerome Robertson was given command of the brigade when Colonel Wofford and his 18th Georgia were transferred to an all-Georgia brigade.
November 20 Captain U.S. Connally of Company D died of consumption.
December 4 Captain William H. Gaston of Company H resigned.
December 13
Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment was not heavily engaged.

April – May
Suffolk Campaign

The regiment was detatched with the rest of Hood’s Division for the campaign around Suffolk, Virginia, missing the Battle of Chancellorsville.

May Captain John R. Woodward of Company G was made acting major
July 2-3
Battle of Gettysburg

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Work. Work temporarily took command of the brigade for when General Robertson was wounded on July 2. The regiment brought 426 men to Gettysburg in 12 instead of the usual 10 companies, and lost 29 killed, 46 wounded, and 22 missing or captured.

From the monument to Robertson’s Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:

July 2. Arrived after a march of several miles and formed line 50 yards west of this at 4 P. M. Advanced against the Union positions. The 4th and 5th Texas joined in the attack on Little Round Top which continued until dark. The 1st and 3d Arkansas attacked and assisted in taking Devil’s Den and Rocky Ridge with a number of prisoners and 3 guns of the 4th New York Battery.

July 3. At 2 A. M. the 1st Texas and 3d Arkansas were moved to the right and joined the 4th and 5th Texas on the northwest spur of Big Round Top. Three regiments occupied the breastworks there all day skirmishing hotly with Union sharpshooters. Early in the day the 1st Texas was sent to confront the Union Cavalry threatening the right flank. After night the Brigade took position near here.

July 5. About 5 A. M. began the march to Hagerstown Md.

Present about 1100 Losses about 540

From the State of Texas monument at Gettysburg:

From near this spot the Texas Brigade at about 4:30 p.m. on July 2 crossed Emmitsburg Road and advanced with Hood’s Division across Plum Run toward Little Round Top. The Texas Brigade after severe fighting on the slopes of Little Round Top retired to a position on the south side of Devil’s Den. The Brigade held this position the night of July 2 and during the day on July 3 then fell back to a position near this memorial on the evening of July 3. On the field at Gettysburg the Texas Brigade suffered 597 casualties.

Lieutenant Benjamin Campbell was killed and Captain (Acting Major) J.R. Woodward was mortally wounded in the head by a shell fragment.

Captain Samuel A. Wilson of Company F was captured on July 3 when the detail he was leading to fill canteens from Plum Run was caught in Farnsworth’s cavalry charge. He changed out of his officer’s uniform while being transferred to the rear and was sent to the enlisted men’s prison at Fort Delaware. He escaped within a few days but was promoted to a staff position in the Trans-Mississippi and never returned to the regiment.

September 10 The Texas Brigade transferred with Hood’s and McLaw’s Divisions to the Army of the Tennessee
September 18 Lieutenant Colonel Work returned to Texas due to illness, and in part due to frustration that he could never be promoted to colonel because Colonel Rainey was still on the regimental books even though disabled. Major Bass took command of the regiment
September 19-20
Battle of Chickamauga

Commanded by Major Samuel Bass, the regiment was in the attack that broke the Federal line on the second day of the battle. The regiment lost 34 men killed, 40 wounded and 3 captured.

January Colonel Rainey was removed from the regimental rolls and Lieutenant Colonel Work resigned. Major Frederick Bass was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Richard J. Harding of Company B to major.
April The regiment returned to Virginia with the rest of Longstreet’s men, assigned to the brigade of Brigadier General John Gregg in Field’s Division.
May 6-7
Battle of the Wilderness

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bass and took part in the “Lee to the Rear” incident before charging with the Texas Brigade to plug a gap in the Confederate line.

Captain John H. Massey of Company K was killed. Acting Major William A. Bedell was wounded.

From the front of the Texas monument on the Wilderness battlefield:

Of approximately 800 troops involved the Texas Brigade counted over 500 casualties.

From the reverse of the monument:

“Who are you my boys?” Lee cried as he saw them gathering.

“Texas boys,” they yelled, their number multiplying every second.

The Texans – Hood’s Texans, of Longstreet’s Corps, just at the right place and at the right moment! After the strain of the dawn, the sight of these grenadier guards of the South was too much for Lee. For once the dignity of the Commanding General was shattered for once his poise was shaken.

“Hurrah for Texas,” he shouted, waving his hat, “Hurrah for Texas.”

The willing veterans sprang into position…He would lead them in the countercharge…He spurred… Traveler
…on the heels of the infantry men.

“Go back, General Lee. Go back!” They cried …”we won’t go on unless you go back!”

– Douglas Southall Freeman

May 8-21
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
June 3
Battle of Cold Harbor

Major Harding was wounded in the shoulder.

July 15 Lieutenant Colonel Bass was promoted to colonel and Major Harding was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
Fall & Winter
Siege of Petersburg
October 7
Battle of Darbytown Road

The regiment suffered heavy casualties charging Union troops armed with repeating carbines. Colonel Frederick Bass took over command of the brigade when General Gregg was killed, then was himself wounded with a flesh wound to his leg. Lieutenant Colonel Richard J. Harding took over command of the regiment.

November 9 Lieutenant Colonel Harding retired to the Invalid Corps due to his Cold Harbor wound. Captain (Acting Major) William A. Bedell took command of the regiment.
February Colonel Bass returned to command after recovering from his wound and was given temporary command of the Texas Brigade
April 9
Appomattox Court House

The regiment surrendered 16 officers and 133 enlisted men under the command of Colonel Frederick Bass.