The 1st New York Light Artillery, Battery M lost 13 enlisted men killed or mortally wounded and 1 officer and 11 enlisted men to disease during the Civil War out of a total enlistment of 262. It is honored by a monument at Gettysburg.
|Organized at Lockport, N.Y.|
|November 15||Mustered in at Rochester under Captain George W. Cothran, 1st Lieutenants Charles E. Winegar and James Peabody and 2nd Lieutenants George B. Eggleston and John W. Woodbury, First Sergeant John H. Gormly and Quartermaster Sergeant R. Wilson Oliver.|
|November 21||Left State for Washington, D.C. Attached to Banks’ Division, Army of the Potomac|
|January||Issued with six 10-pounder Parrott Rifles and ordered to Frederick City, Maryland.|
|March||Advance on Winchester, assigned to Artillery, Williams’ Division, Banks’ 5th Army Corps|
|March 6||Captain Cothran was dismissed by order of General McClellan in execution of the sentence of court martial.|
|March 12||Occupation of Winchester; assigned to Dept. of the Shenandoah|
|April 1-2.||Advance from Strasburg to Woodstock and Edenburg. Attached to Department of the Shenandoah, 1st Division|
|April 7-11 and 14||Near Edenburg|
|April 19||South Fork of the Shenandoah|
|April 28-June 17||Operations in the Shenandoah Valley|
|May 24||Middletown and Newtown. the battery helped defend the retreating supply and ammunition train.|
Battle of Winchester
The battery was split into three sections which defended different parts of the battlefield. Lieutenant Winegar’s section cooly extracted one of its pieces from a difficult location as Confederate attackers drew near and supporting infantry disappeared. Lieutenant Woodbury’s section and a gun of Lieutenant Peabody’s section covered the rearguard of the army in its retreat north. The battery lost two men killed and several wounded, one mortally.
|May 25-26||Retreat to Williamsport|
|June||Assigned to Artillery, 1st Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of Virginia|
|June 4||Captain Cothran’s court martial sentence was vacated by President Lincoln and he was returned to duty.|
Battle of Cedar Mountain
The battery was on the extreme right of the Union line and took and helped silence Jackson’s artillery.
|August 16-September 2||Pope’s Campaign in Northern Virginia|
Fought a “severe duel” with two Confederate batteries
|August 21||Rappahannock River|
|August 27-29||Plains of Manassas|
Second Battle of Bull Run
|September||Assigned to Artillery, 1st Division, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac|
Battle of Antietam
The battery was commanded by Captain Cothran. Supported by the 107th New York, it went into battle around 9 a.m. in an open field near the center of the line to the west of the East Woods and 200 yards east of the Hagerstown Pike and held its position until relieved around 1 p.m. During that time it expended its ammunition and held off two Confederate attacks without calling on its supporting infantry. The battery lost 1 corporal killed and five privates wounded.
General Gordon, the battery’s division commander, wrote
“…I take great pleasure in bearing testimony to the gallant conduct and efficient service of this battery in action. From the most unimpeachable testimony, I am convinced that this battery, unaided by its supports, kept at bay a furious but futile charge of the enemy. In this, as in many other cases, Captain Cothran has shown what a judicious artillerist can accomplish when he devotes himself to the service of his country and throws himself energetically into the discharge of his duties.”
|September||At Maryland Heights|
|December 10-14||March to Fairfax Station|
|January 20-24||“Mud March”|
|February-April||Duty at Stafford Court House|
|April 27-May 6||Chancellorsville Campaign. Assigned to Artillery Brigade, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac|
Battle of Chancellorsville
The battery took position to the west of the Chancellor House and engaged in a severe duel with Confederate guns to the south and west. When the 11th Corps position collapsed the battery changed front and engaged the pursuing Confederates, eventually becoming the anchor of a line of 30 guns. Battery M was one of the last to leave the field, and was forced to leave behind two caissons as their horses had been killed. Lieutenant Winegar and an enlisted man were captured as they tried to bring them off. The battery lost four men killed in the fighting.
|June 11-July 24||Gettysburg Campaign|
Battle of Gettysburg
The battery was commanded by Lieutenant Charles E. Winegar, and brought 96 men to the field serving four 10-Pounder Parrott Rifles, the battery only having the men and horses to man two sections of guns after Chancellorsville. Lieutenant Woodbury’s section was deployed on Powers Hill and Lieutenant Smith’s on the McAllister Farm, both providing support fire for the Twelfth Corps fighting on Culp’s Hill and near Spangler’s Spring on July 3. Lieutenant Woodbury was requested to suppress Confederate sharpshooters in the Zeb. Taney house. He moved one or both of his pieces to the east of the Baltimore Pike and shot out the front of the house, removing the threat. The battery suffered no losses in the battle.
|July 4||Lieutenant Woodbury received his commission as captain as the battery left Gettysburg.|
|October||Transferred to Army of the Cumberland|
|October 4||Guard Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad|
|October 26-29||Reopening Tennessee River|
|December 10||Sixy-three men of the battery re-enlisted, giving the battery Veteran status.|
|April||Attached to Artillery, 1st Division, 20th Army Corps. The battery was issued with six 12-pounder Napoleons.|
|May 1 to September 8||Atlanta Campaign|
|May 8-13||Operations about Rocky Faced Ridge, Tunnel Hill and Buzzard’s Roost Gap|
|May 14-15||Battle of Resaca|
|May 25||New Hope Church|
|May 26-June 5||Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills|
|June 10-July 2||Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain|
|June 11-14||Pine Hill|
|June 15-17||Lost Mountain|
Gilgal or Golgotha Church
The battery lost one man killed.
|June 17||Muddy Creek|
|June 19||Noyes Creek|
The battery lost one man killed and one mortally wounded.
|June 27||Assault on Kenesaw|
|July 4||Ruff’s Station, Smyrna Camp Ground|
|July 5-17||Chattahoochee River|
|July 19-20||Peach Tree Creek|
|July 22-August 25||
Siege of Atlanta.
Assigned to Artillery Brigade, 20th Army Corps. The battery lost one man killed in the works before Atlanta.
|August 26-September 2||Operations at Chattahoochee River Bridge|
|September 2-November 15||Occupation of Atlanta. Captain Woodbury resigned.|
|November 15-December 10||March to the sea|
|December 10-21||Siege of Savannah|
|January to April||Campaign of the Carolinas|
|January 29||Robertsville, S. C.|
|March 16||Averysboro, N. C.|
|March 19-21||Battle of Bentonville|
|March 24||Occupation of Goldsboro|
|April 14||Occupation of Raleigh|
Surrender of Johnston and his army.
|April 29-May 20||March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond|
|May 24||Grand Review|
|June 23||Mustered out under Captain Edward H. Underbill|