|July||Organized under Colonel Arthur Campbell Cummings.
Company A – “Potomac Guards” – Captain Philip T. Grace
|July 15||The regiment was assigned to the 1st Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah under Brigadier General Thomas J. Jackson. The regiment had not completed its organization and was not yet assigned a number, being referred to as “Cumming’s Regiment.”|
|July 18||Left Winchester in the afternoon to march to Piedmont Station. Companies D&I were left behind on guard and detached service at Winchester.|
|July 19||Boarded train at Piedmont Station for Manassas Junction|
|July 20||Reached Manassas before daylight|
Captain William Fitzhugh Lee was temporarily assigned to the regiment as acting lieuteant colonel. About 400 men in eight companies of the regiment were engaged on Henry House Hill. The brigade earned its name when Confederate Brigadier General Barnard Bee, rallying his troops as they fell back from the Union attack, pointed to Jackson’s brigade and cried, “There stands Jackson like a stone wall. Rally behind the Virginians!”
The 33rd charged Union artillery on the hill, overunning the battery. They were forced back by a Union fire from the New York Zouaves and 1st Michigan, but the Union advance was halted and the tide of the battle was turned. A series of attacks by other Confederate units led to the collapse and retreat of the Union army.
The regiment lost 43 men killed and 140 wounded in the battle. Captain Lee was mortally wounded by a piece of artilery shell and Captain Marion Siebert of Company E was shot through both legs.
|July 25||Companies D&I join the regiment, which is assigned its number.|
|July 26||Captain Edwin G. Lee of Jackson’s staff was promoted to major of the 33rd Virginia.|
|August 2||Moved to Camp Harman, a mile east of Centerville, the old camp having become so unhealthy it was nicknamed “Camp Maggot”|
|August 21||Captain J.R. Jones of Company I was promoted to lieutenant colonel|
|September 16||Moved from Camp Harman to a camp near Fairfax Court House|
|October 13||Brigadier General Jackson was promoted to Major General|
|October 21||The Department of Northern Virginia was created. The regiment was assigned to the Second Corps of the Potomac District.|
|November 4||Major General Jackson was assigned to the District of the Valley.|
|November 7-8||The Brigade was transferred to Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia. The regiment was to be moved by train to the Valley. They marched to Manassas Junction but there were not enough cars for the regiment, so it camped in the open in a pouring rain to wait for the train to return the next day.
Company E (The Emerald Guard) got hold of a barrel of whiskey, resulting in a drunken brawl in which several men were wounded.
|November 9-10||The regiment moved by train to Strasburg, spent the night in the boxcars, then marched to Kernstown the next day.|
|November 12-13||After spending a day at Kernstown, the brigade marched through Winchester and made camp about five miles northeast of Winchester at Stephenson Depot, known as Camp Stephenson.|
|November 14||Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett was given command of the Stonewall Brigade|
|December 16||Expedition to destroy Dam #5 on the Potomac and wreck the C&O Canal. Marched 15 miles to Big Springs near Martinsburg, then after a few hours rest, another 13 miles to the dam location.|
|December 18-20||After several attempts to damage the dam a breach was finally made. Union artillery and infantry harassed the efforts, so most attempts were made under cover of night. The only casualty of the expedition was an artilleryman on one of the accompanying batteries (Chew’s Battery and the Rockbridge Artillery) was killed.|
|December 21||Returned to Winchester|
|January 1-26||Romney Campaign|
|January 1||Left Winchester for Romney at 5 am. Although the day began mild and sunny the weatther turned by afternoon, and the men bivouacked in a blizzard.|
|January 2||Resumed the march in the blizzard without food, as the supply trains had been unable to catch up.|
|January 3||The supply wagons caught up in time for breakfast, but fell behind by nightfall. After taking all day to cover only six miles, the men bivouaced four miles from Bath without food or shelter.|
|January 4||Arrived in Bath at noon, chasing out a smal Federal garrison. The army then marched eight more miles, halting across the Potomac from Federal forces at Hancock, Maryland.|
|January 5-6||Bombarded the town of Hancock, Maryland, whcih refused to surrender.|
|January 7||With Federal reinforcements on the way, withdrew from Hancock toward Romney and bivouaced near Unger’s Crossing in a very heavy snowfall.|
|January 8-14||Marched to Romney on roads made almost impassible by heavy snow and sleet. Wagons, caissons and artillery pieces had to be pulled by hand when the draft animals were unable to continue.|
|January 14-19||Camped at Romney|
|January 19-26||Returned to Winchester and went into winter quarters at Camp Zollicoffer, four miles north of town.|
|March 11||Marched north to meet Union forces advancing on the town but Banks declined to attack. The army marched south, with the plan to turn around and launch a night attack, but advance elements marched past the turn-around point and the attack plan was abandoned.|
|March 12-13||Marched 42 miles south through Strasburg to Mount Jackson.|
|March 14-21||At Camp Buchanan at Mount Jackson|
|March 22||Marched north to attack Union forces withdrawing down the valley, bivouacking at Cedar Creek.|
First Battle of Kernstown
The army marched ten miles north from Cedar Creek and engaged Union forces at Kernstown.
The regiment held a stone wall against overwhelming numbers until it ran out of ammunition and was forced to retreat. It lost 18 men killed, 27 wounded and 14 missing out of 275 men engaged. Jackson’s position collapsed when his outnumbered men ran out of ammunition, and the army retreated to Newtown.
|March 24||The army returned to Mount Jackson.|
|April 1||Jackson removed General Garnett from command of the brigade for withdrawing without orders at Kernstown and ordered him to Harrisburg under arrest. He was replaced by Brigadier General Charles Winder.|
|April 11||Captain Marion Sibert of Company E resigned.|
|April 18-May||Jackson’s Valley Campaign|
|April 18||March to Conrad’s Store at Swift Run Gap through driving rail and hail.|
|April 21-23||The army reorganization legislated by the Conscription Act led to the highest level of recruitment during the Civil War. The regiment reenlisted for three years or the war and was reorganized, gaining 297 new recruits from disbanding militia units to reach a strength of 762 men. Colonel Cummings resigned after a disagreement with Jackson. Adjutant John F. Neff (VMI Class of 1858) was elected colonel, and Major Edwin G. Lee was elected lieutenant colonel. Captain Frederick W.M. Holliday was elected major.|
|April 30||The army moved out of the Valley over the Blue Ridge in the direction of Charlottesville.|
|May 3||The army boarded trains at Meechum’s River Station and returned to Staunton in the Valley.|
|May 7||Marched north from Staunton then northwest to McDowell, twenty miles away.|
Battle of McDowell
The Stonewall Brigade was unengaged in reserve.
|May 14||The army began its return march to Strasburg|
|May 16||The army celebrated a day of prayer and feasting ordered by President Davis for the victory at McDowell|
|May 18||Into camp at Mount Solon, ten miles south of Harrisonburg.|
|May 19||Marched to Harrisonburg and deposited knapsacks at the courthouse|
|May 20-22||To New Market, then east over Massanutten Mountain and north through the Luray Valley.|
The regiment was not engaged
|May 24||Marched north to Newtown, where the regiment looted abandoned Union wagons of food and clothing, and to within nine miles of Winchester by dusk. The advance continued through the night until 2 a.m.|
The regiment numbered about 150 men under Colonel Neff. After a brief rest, the regiment advanced until they found Banks’ army in line of battle on a low ridge south of Winchester. The brigade formed line of battle with the 33rd in reserve and attacked the Union position, but were pinned down by heavy artillery fire. The regiment supported Cutshaw’s Battery until a second assault by the entire army caused the collapse of the Union line. The army pursued Banks five miles north of Winchester to Stephenson’s Depot, where the pursuit was called off.
|May 26-27||Two day rest period at Winchester|
|May 28||Left Winchester at 5 a.m. for Charles Town. After forming line of battle a brief artillery duel caused the Federals to retreat. Marched to just outside Harpers Ferry, where the Federals occupied defensive positions on Bolivar Heights. The brigade withdrew to outside Charles Town.|
|May 29||Bivouacked at Halltown|
|May 30||Waited for the return of the 2nd Virginia from Loudon heights, then marched for Winchester to escape entrapment by encircling Federal forces. Passed through Winchester and reached Newtown after nightfall in a pouring rain. The regiment marched 28 miles on the 30th.|
|June 1||Continued through Strasburg and a few miles south of town to rejoin Jackson’s main force, escaping the Union trap.|
|June 2-5||Withdrew to Harrisonbrg. The brigade served as the rear guard for the army.|
|June 6||Rested in line of battle|
|June 7||Marched to Port Republic|
|June 8||Skirmish for the bridges at Port Republic. The regiment was in reserve.|
The regiment was on picket duty and was unable to rejoin the brigade in time for its early morning attack, as no one knew where it had gone and traffic jams at the bridge held it up. It joined the brigade for the final, successful assault on the Union position.
|June 12-16||Camped at Wyer’s Cave near Mount Meridian.|
|June 17||Marched over Brown’s Gap and on the way to Richmond.|
|June 25-July 1||Seven Days Battles|
|June 26||Reached Mechanicsville, camping four miles to the north at Hundley’s Corner.|
Battle of Gaines’ Mill
The regiment made one of the final charges at dusk. The charge successfully carried the Union position but darkness ended the fighting.
|June 28-29||On picket duty, burying the dead and gathering up discarded arms and equipment.|
Battle of Malvern Hill
After taking most of the day to move into position the brigade attacked at dusk, facing terrific fire. The attack was called off with the fall of darkness. The regiment lost 33 casualties. Captain Golladay was wounded.
|July 2||Advanced to the Union positions on Malvern Hill but found them abandoned. The brigade followed the retreating Federals to Harrison’s Landing.|
|July 3||Advanced on the Union camp but came under fire from large caliber naval guns, and the attack was called off.|
|July 4-7||Rested in camp. The regiment made a truce with a Federal unit that was on the other end of a blackberry field, allowing both sides to forage.|
|July 8 – 16||Moved to Richmond for a rest break and went into camp at Glenwood, a farm owned by Hugh Whie about three miles out of Richmond on the Mechanicsville Turnpike.|
|July 17||Moved north to Face Pope’s Army of Virginia|
|July 18-19||Camped at Hanover Junction|
|July 20-21||Marched to Gordonsville through Louisa County|
|July 22-29||Camped outside Gordonsville at Green Spring|
|July 30||Marched north along the Madison Court House Road to the Terrell farm|
|August 1-6||Training north of Gordonsville|
|August 7||Moved north from Gordonsville toward Pope|
|August 8||Forded the Rapidan River and went into bivouac a mile north of the river|
Battle of Cedar Mountain
The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Edwin G. Lee. It started the day with 160 men, but lost 10 men to heat exhaustion on the approach march. In the fighting it lost 17 men casualties. General Winder was mortally wounded. Major Holliday was wounded, losing his right arm, and Captain Abraham Spengler was wounded.
|August 10||Withdrew from the battlefield to near Gordonsville|
|August 11-16||Five days rest in camp|
|August 15||Colonel William Baylor of the 5th Virginia took command of the brigade replacing General Winder, who had been mortally wounded at Cedar Mountain. The brigade broke camp at Gordonsville, and marched through Orange Court House to bivouac near Pisgah Church.|
|August 16-19||Rest days in camp.|
|August 18||Execution of four deserters from Jackson’s Division who had been captured in the Shenandoah Valley and returned to the army. Three men were from the 10th Virginia and one was from the 5th Virginia. Twelve men formed in the firing squad, half of whose rifles were loaded, while the condemned men knelt in front of their graves. The entire division formed in a three-sided square around the site, and after the men were killed marched past their graves.|
|August 19-21||Marched northeast, fording the Rapidan River and reaching Jeffersonton.|
|August 22-24||Bivouacked at Jeffersonton in the rain without food or shelter, the wagons having been unable to keep up on the muddy roads.|
|August 25||Before dawn, the men prepared three days rations rations (and ate them), were issued 60 rounds of ammunition, and were ordered to leave their knapsacks in an empty building. Marched north 25 miles to Salem|
|August 26||The march continued through the Thoroughfare Gap to Bristoe.|
|August 27||Entered Manassas just after dawn and marched past the mountains of food and supplies to take up a position north of town. In the afternoon the brigade loaded up as much as they could carry and headed north before the supply depot was put to the torch. The brigade reached a ridge near Groveton after having marched three days with ony about four hours sleep.|
After resting on the ridge for most of the day the brigade ambushed the Union division of Rufus King marching by on the Warrenton Pike. A brutal close-range stand-up firefight developed with the Union Iron Brigade. The regiment went into the battle with 250 men and lost heavily. Colonel John Neff suffered several wounds before being killed. Company A had started the battle with 17 men and lost 5 men killed, 5 wounded and 1 missing.
Captain Philip T. Grace of Company A was promoted to major.
The regiment, down to about 150 in strength, was lightly engaged on the 29th. On the 30th the morning was quiet, but in the afternoon three heavy Federal attacks were driven back. The regiment lost 33 killed and 81 wounded in the three days fighting. Colonel Grigsby of the 27th Virginia took command of the brigade after Colonel Baylor was killed in the afternoon fighting. Many of the men ran out of ammunition and defended the position with bayonets or thrown rocks until Longstreet’s assault saved the line from collapse. The total casualties for the three days of fighting were 17 killed and 90 wounded.
Battle of Chantilly
The regiment was in reserve during the battle, which was fought in a tremendous thunderstorm.
|September 4||Marched north and west toward Leesburg.|
|September 5||Marched through Leesburg and forded the Potomac at White’s Ford while the brigade band played Maryland, My Maryland.|
|September 6-7||Marched to a camp just north of Frederick, Maryland.|
|September 8-9||The regiment rested, fed, and re-clothed itself.|
|September 10-12||Marched west through Boonsboro to cross the Potomac at Williamsport, on to Martinsburg, where the Union garrison had retreated, and south to Harpers Ferry. The men march 60 miles, crossed two mountain ranges, and forded the Potomac.|
|September 13-15||Siege and surrender of Harpers Ferry|
The brigade, mustering a little over 250 men, was attacked at dawn by Hooker’s First Corps. After a brutal seesaw battle the brigade was forced back to the west woods, when Early’s Brigade arrived as reinforcements. The brigade helped throw back the assault by Williams’ Union Division, then was pulled into reserve as fighting on the north end of the battlefield died down. The men were distributed salt pork, their first meal since Harpers Ferry. The regiment lost 3 killed and 17 wounded out of around 200 men. Colonel Lee, who was on the field even though ill, was captured, and Captain Jacob B. Golladay was wounded but took command.
|September 18||Remained in place on the battlefield.|
|September 19||Marched south, recrossing the Potomac at Boteler’s Ford east of Shepherdstown and halting north of Winchester.|
|September||Went into camp near Berryville.|
|September 26||Colonel Lee was paroled but did not rejoint the regiment due to poor health|
|November 1||Major Frank Paxton, a brigade staff officer, was promoted to command the Stonewall Brigade|
|November 15||Major Holliday was promoted to lieutenant colonel.|
|November 22 -December 2||The Stonewall Brigade marched south and over the Blue Ridge at Luray Gap, through Orange Court House and Madison Court House, through Gordonsville, to Guiney’s Station.|
|December 2-11||Camped at Guiney’s Station|
Colonel Lee briefly rejoined the regiment for the battle. The brigade was under artillery bombardment in the morning. In the afternoon it was brought forward to repel a Union breakthrough. The regiment’s advance was blocked by defending Confederate units, and did not participate in the fighting.
|December||Colonel Lee resigned due to his health|
|December 18||Moved to Camp Winder, winter quarters at Moss Neck, three miles from Guiney’s Station. The regiment mustered 260 men.|
|January||Major Grace resigned due to declining health. Captain George Huston of Company I was promoted to major.|
|February 1||Lieutenant Colonel Holliday was promoted to colonel. Captain Abraham Spengler of Company F was promoted to lieutenant colonel.|
|February||Six men of the Stonewall Brigade were convicted by court-martial of desertion. One was given six months hard labor, one was flogged (which would be prohibited by law in April) and three were to be shot, but their sentences were commuted by President Davis.|
|April 28-May 6||Chancellorsville Campaign|
|April 28||Marched to Hamilton’s Crossing|
|May 1||Marched west to near Chancellorsville and bivouaced on the Plank Road|
Beginning at dawn, marched around the Union right flank. The Stonewall Brigade was positioned on the right flank of assault and held in reserve to guard the Plank Road. After the main attack was launched the brigade moved to the left flank of Jacksn’s force. There was “Great consternation” when the news spread that Jackson had been wounded.
Battle of Chancellorsville (continued)
The fighting resumed at dawn. The brigade advanced 300 yards across the Plank Road and assaulted Union breastworks, passing thrugh McGowan’s South Carolina Brigade. After intense fighting the brigade was forced back with heavy casualties. A second charge was successful in taking the Union position. After persuing to the Chancellor clearing, the brigade, out of ammunition and with heavy casualties, was pulled back to the line of Union breastworks they had taken to regroup. After replenishing ammunition and resting they moved forward in the afternoon and took up a forward position. The regiment lost 10 men killed and 50 men wounded in the battle, mostly in the two charges on the breastworks on May 3.
|May 4||Threw up breastworks and remained in defensive positions covering the Union line.|
|May 7||The brigade returned to Hamilton’s Crossing east of Fredericksburg and formed Camp Paxton|
|May 10||The news of “Stonewall” Jackson’s death reached the brigade|
|May 19||Brigadier General James A. Walker was appointed to command the brigade. All five regimental commanders resigned to protest the command being given to someone outside the brigade (althought Walker had served briefly in the 4th Virginia at the start of the war) but Lee talked the commanders into withdrawing their resignations.|
|May 30||The War Department granted the brigade’s request that they be officially known as the Stonewall Brigade, becoming the only unit larger than a regiment in the army to have an official nickname.|
|June 8-9||The brigade left Camp Paxton and marched to Culpeper.|
|June 9-10||Rested at Culpeper|
|June 11-12||Moved through Chester Gap to Front Royal|
|June 13||Marched for Winchester at 4 a.m., reaching the town around noon. The brigade guarded the Front Royal Road.|
Secured the high ground east of Winchester, skirmishing with Union forces
After a night march, the brigade reached the battlefield at dawn and attacked Milroy’s retreating men. The surrounded Federals were forced to surrender, with the Stonewall Brigade capturing over 800 men while losing only 3 men killed, 16 wounded, and 19 men missing.
Captain Golladay commanded the regiment. At noon, moved eastward behind Longstreet’s wagons across South Mountain. Reached the battlefield at nightfall after a 25 mile march and passed through Gettysburg, halting a mile east of town on the Hanover Road.
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)
Remained in position skirmishing on the Army’s left flank. After sundown the brigade left a picket to guard the Hanover road and moved to join the attack Culp’s Hill. But the attack had stalled, and the brigade took position behind Steuart’s Brigade on the left of the line. Captain G.E. Eastham was killed.
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)
The fighting started at first light. The Stonewall Brigade went to the support of Steuart’s Brigade, who were trying to assault Culp’s Hill while fighting off a Federal counterattack. The fighting continued for five hours, when the division was pulled back to Benner’s Hill around 9 a.m.
The brigade replenished its ammunition and cleaned their guns before returning to the attack, moving in between Jones’ and Nicholls’ Brigades on the right of the line. The three brigades were subjected to a heavy artillery fire for 45 minutes before they were pulled back.
A third attack went forward around noon which broke through the first line of Frderal positions before falling back with heavy casualties. Out of the 236 men engaged the regiment lost 19 men killed, 36 wounded and 15 missing. Captain George Bedinger of Company E was killed; according to Captain Golladay his body was closest to the Union lines. Major Huston was wounded and captured.
|July 4||Moved to a defensive position along Oak Ridge northwest of Gettysburg. After dark the brigade began its march to Hagerstown in a violent thunderstorm. Five men of Company E were captured during the retreat to Virginia.|
|July 14||Crossed the Potomac and camped at Darkesville.|
|July 18||Crossed the Blue Ridge through Thomas Gap on the way to Orange Court House.|
|July-August||Camped on the Plank Road near Montpelier, numbering only 90 men.|
|September 7||Marched to Morton’s Ford.|
|September||Guard duty at Morton’s Ford. The regiment was commanded by Colonel Frederick W.M. Holliday.|
|November 26||Moved to the Rapidan earthworks.|
Battle of Mine Run
Marched at dawn for Mine Run and deployed on the left of the army.
|November 28-30||Remained in defensive positions until Meade retreated across the rapidan.|
|December||Went into winter quarters near Pisgah Church, named Camp Stonewall Jackson.|
|January||Meat rations were reduced to four ounces of bacon, twelve ounces of beef, and ten ounces of flour. Many of the men were without shoes or socks.|
|February 6-7||Morton’s Ford|
|March 21||Colonel Holliday retired to the invalid corps, a result of having lost an arm at Cedar Mountain. Lieutenant Colonel Abraham Spengler was promoted to colonel. Major Huston, still a Federal prisoner, was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and Captain Golladay of Company B was promoted to major.|
|March 23||The Great Snowball Fight pitted the Stonewall Brigade and Stafford’s Louisiana Brigade against Doles’ Georgia Brigade and Ramseur’s North Carolina Brigade.|
|May 4||Broke camp and moved to Locust Grove on the Orange-Fredericksburg Turnpike.|
On the first day the regiment, which mustered less than 100 men, was engaged in heavy fighting on the northwest side of the Germanna Plank Road until they were relieved at dusk by Hays’ Louisiana Brigade. On the second day the brigade held defensive positions against Federal probing attacks and sharpshooters.
|May 8||The brigade marched until dawn, when they were given a two hour break. The march then resumed at a fast pace in the hot, dry dusty day. After a sixteen hour march they reached Spotsylvania Court House, where they were double timed into line of battle under artillery fire. The men then spent the night digging in to their positions on the side of the “Mule Shoe.”|
|May 9||The men continued to improve their earthworks.|
|May 10||A Federal attack on the part of the line held by Doles’ Brigade on the left of the Stonewall Brigade broke through the lines. The 2nd and 33rd regiments on the left flank of the brigade fell back, but General Walker steadied the line and led a counterattack that helped drive the Federals back and restored the line.|
|May 11||Light Federal probes were thrown back, and the men continued to improve the earthworks, adding traverses at right angle to the earthworks to protect the flanks agains breakthroughs in neighboring parts of the line. Most of the support artillery was removed after dark in preparation for moving the line.|
A major Federal attack punched through the Confederate line north of the brigade and overwhelmed the Confederate defenders from front, flank and rear. Most of the Stonewall Brigade was killed or captured, with the survivors of the brigade falling back on the 2nd Virginia, which had escaped encirclement. The remnants of the brigade fought for the rest of the day in a pouring rain to hold back the Federal assault until a secondary defensive line could be prepared to the rear.
|May 14||The 249 survivors of the Stonewall Brigade were consolidated under the command of Colonel Terry of the 4th Virginia in a brigade that was made up of the remnants of 14 Virginia regiments. The 33rd Virginia was reported to consist of a captain and three enlisted men, although Major Jacob B. Golladay also escaped capture.|
Battle of North Anna
Terry’s Brigade was in reserve and not engaged.
|May 30||Bethesda Church|
Terry’s Brigade was in reserve and not engaged.
|June 13-15||Marched west through Mechanicsville to Louisa Court House.|
|June 16||Marched 28 miles to reach Charlottesville after dark.|
|June 17||Boarded a train to be taken to Lynchburg but the engine broke down. The men continued their march on foot, arriving after Hunter’s Federals had withdrawn from the city.|
|June 21||Received the first rations in two days – a quarter pound of bacon and a pound of stale cornbread.|
|June 23||Marched north on the Valley Pike|
|June 25||Reached Lexington. The Army of the Valley, led by the survivors of the Stonewall Brigade, filed past Jackson’s grave.|
Early’s Valley Campaign
Assigned to Terry’s Consolidated Brigade, Gordon’s Division, Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia
|June 26-July 2||Marched north down the Shenandoah Valley to Winchester.|
|July 3-5||Contined the march north, crossing the Potomac at Williamsport.|
|July 18||Snicker’s Ferry|
|September 23||Major Golladay was captured at Woodstock.|
Lieutenant David H. Walton wounded
|December 9||Terry’s Brigade, with the survivors of the Stonewall Brigade, left the Shenandoah Valley for the last time to join the fighting around Richmond and Petersburg.|
Assigned to Terry’s Consolidated Brigade, Gordon’s Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
The regiment surrendered 1 officer and 18 men under the command of Captain Henry A. Herrell.