Confederate Regiments & BatteriesVirginia

The 55th Virginia Infantry Regiment was created at Fredericksburg in September of 1861 and surrendered at Appomattox Court House in April of 1865. It listed 1,181 men who saw active service with the regiment. Of these 108 men were killed in action and 198 men died of disease.

September The regiment was organized for one year’s service under the command of Colonel Francis Mallory. It was created from a core of eight militia companies that had organized in May and June:

Company A, Essex Artillery, enlisted May 21st 1861, commanded by Captain Evan Rice
Company B, Middlesex Artillery, enlisted May 24th 1861, commanded by Captain William Fleet
Company C, Middlesex Southerners, enlisted May 24th 1861, commanded by Captain Andrew Saunders
Company D, Essex Davis Rifles, enlisted June 17th 1861, commanded by Captain Gustavus Garnett Roy
Company E, Westmoreland Greys, enlisted June 24th 1861, commanded by Captain J. Bailey Jett
Company F, Essex Sharpshooters, enlisted May 21st 1861, commanded by Captain Thomas Burke
Company G, Essex Grays, enlisted June 12th 1861, commanded by Captain George Street
Company H, Middlesex Rifles

The 55th Virginia Infantry Regiment was assigned to Department of Fredericksburg.

October Assigned to Aquia District, Department of Northern Virginia.
April Companies I, K & L were added.
April 19 Union occupation of Fredericksburg.
April 28 Company B converted to Middlesex Artillery Battery
May-June The regiment was reorganized. Assigned to Field’s Brigade, A.P. Hill’s Division, Army of Northern Virginia
June-July Assigned to Field’s Brigade, A.P. Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command, Army of Northern Virginia
June 10 Company F of the 5th Alabama Infantry Battalion was transferred to the regiment and became Company F.
June 25-July 1
Seven Days Battles

The regiment lost 108 casualties

June 27
Battle of Gaines’s Mill
June 30
Battle of Frayser’s Farm

Major Thomas M. Burke was killed.

July Assigned to Field’s Brigade, A.P. Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command, Army of Northern Virginia
August 9
Battle of Cedar Mountain
August 28-30
Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

The regiment brought 82 men to the field and lost 3 men killed, 22 wounded and 5 missing

August 28-30
Battle of Chantilly

Skirmishers of the 55th Virginia killed Union General Phil Kearney.

September 12-15
Siege of Harpers Ferry
September 17
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The regiment was commanded by Captain Charles N. Lawson

September 20
Battle of Shepherdstown Ford
December 13
Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment lost 11 casualties. Captain Lawson was captured after the battle while on leave.

March 15 Captain Lawson was exchanged and returned to the regiment.
May 1-4
Battle of Chancellorsville

The regiment was commanded by Colonel Francis Mallory until he was killed in Jackson’s assault on May 3. It lost 110 casualties. During the assault the regiment lost its colonel, lieutenant colonel and every company commander.

May Assigned to Field’s-Walker’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, 3rd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. The regiment totalled about 480 men.
May 26 Captain Lawson was promoted to major.
July 1-3
Battle of Gettysburg

The 55th Virginia was commanded at Gettysburg by Colonel William S. Christian. It brought 268 men to the field and lost 12% casualties. The regiment was on the left flank of Pickett’s Charge on July 3 and was one of the first regiments to break.

July 14
Falling Waters

The regiment lost 74 men captured, including Colonel Christian. Sargent Charles M. Holton of the 7th Michigan Cavalry Regiment captured the colors. When the regiment returned to Virginia soil it numbered around 130 men under the command of Major Charles N. Lawson.

Bristoe Campaign
Mine Run Campaign
May 5-6
Battle of the Wilderness

The regiment lost its colors during the fighting on May 5.

May 8-21
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
May 22-26
Battle of North Anna
June 1-3
Battle of Cold Harbor
Siege of Petersburg
August 18-21
Battle of Weldon Railroad

Major Lawson was mortally wounded.

September 29 Squirrel Level Road
September 30 Jones’s Farm
October 1
Pegram’s Farm
October 2 Harman Road
January-March Assigned to Mayo’s-Barton’s Brigade, Department of Richmond
February Consolidated with 47th Virginia Infantry Regiment
March-April Assigned to Barton’s Brigade, G.W.C. Lee’s Division, Department of Richmond
April G.W.C. Lee’s Division transferred to Army of Northern Virginia for the evacuation of Richmond.
April 6
Sayler’s Creek
April 9
Appomattox Court House

Two officers and 21 men surrendered.