Confederate Regiments & Batteries > South Carolina


“Orr’s Regiment of Rifles”

The regiment lost 334 officers and men killed, 201 dead from disease, and 791 wounded during the Civil War. Orr’s Rifles was the first South Carolina regiment to change its enlistment from 12 months to “for the war.”

1861
July Organized at Camp Pickens, Sandy Springs under Colonel James Lawrence Orr, Lieutenant Colonel Jehu Foster Marshall, Major Daniel A. Ledbetter and Adjutant Benjamin Sloan. Although uniformed in the green-trimmed dark blue uniforms of a rifle regiment, the 1st was supplied with smoothbore muskets.

Company A: Captain J.W. Livingston
Company B: Captain James M. Perrin
Company C: Captain J.J. Norton
Company D: Captain F. E. Harrison
Company E: Captain Miles M. Norton
Company F: Captain Robert A. Hawthorn
Company G: G. McD. Miller
Company H: Captain George M. Fairlee
Company K: Captain G.W. Cox
Company L: Captain J.B. Moore.

Sergeant-major: T. B. Lee

Fall Stationed on Sullivan’s Island, Department of North Carolina, where it became known as the “Pound Cake Regiment” due to its light duty. The regiment mustered over 1,500 men at this time.
December Colonel Orr was elected to the Confederate States Senate.
1862
January 29 Colonel Orr resigned his commission to enter Congress. Lieutenant Colonel Marshall was promoted to colonel, Major Ledbetter to lieutenant colonel and Captain James W. Livingston of Company A to major. Captain James Perrin would be absent much of the year as a member of the state legislature.
April 20-24 Moved to Virginia with 1,000 effectives and picketed the road to Frederick near Massaponax church. Assigned to J. R. Anderson’s brigade
Last week in May Moved to the Chickahominy above Richmond
June Assihgned to Gregg’s Brigade, A. P. Hill’s Division, Army of Northern Virginia, consisting of the 1st, 12th, 13th, 14th South Carolina Infantry and the 1st South Carolina Rifles
June 26
Mechanicsville

S.C. Reid of Company G mortally wounded

June 27
Gaines’ Mill

The regiment lost 81 killed and 234 wounded of the 537 men engaged. Captain Francis E Harrison was wounded.

“Company G had twenty-one killed on the field and mortally wounded: Lieutenant B. M. Latimer, Sergeant-Major A.H. McGee, L. A. Callaham, W. J. Calvert, Dr. Frank Clinkscales, R. F. Cunningham, J.A. Davis, Samuel Fields, M. Freeman, R. A. Gordon, John B. Gordon, I.L. Grier, E.J. Humphreys, A. P. Lindsay, A.H. McGhee, Jr., J.G. Martin, J. Morris, E.W. Pruitt, George B. Richey, S. O. Reid (26th), W.H. Simpson, over 33 per cent, killed and mortally wounded, 80 per cent. killed and wounded.” – Southern Historical Society Papers V 27, p163

June Assigned to Gregg’s Brigade, A. P. Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command (later 1st Corps) Army of Northern Virginia
July Assigned to Gregg’s Brigade, A. P. Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command (later 2nd Corps), Army of Northern Virginia
August 29-30
Second Manassas

The regiment lost 116 men defending the Railroad Cut. Colonel Marshall was killed. Lt. Colonel Ledbetter took command and was promoted to colonel but was then mortally wounded and would die on September 1. Major Livingston took over command although in poor health.

September 1
Ox Hill (Chantilly)
September Major Livingston was promoted to colonel, Major Perrin to lieutenant colonel and Captain Joseph J. Norton of Company C was promoted to major effective to September 1.
September 17
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

Colonel Livingston “fainted from the heat” and was forced to give up command to Lieutenant Colonel James M. Perrin.

From the brigade marker on the Antietam battlefield:

“Gregg’s Brigade formed line about 3 P.M. in the fields southwest of this and advanced into the southwest corner of the 40 acre cornfield, about 100 yards east of this point, where it encountered and repulsed the advance of the extreme left of the Ninth Corps. An effort to pursue into the field beyond was checked, and the Brigade fell back to the line now marked by this road, where it remained until the early morning of the 19th, when it retired to Blackford’s Ford and was the last Infantry Brigade of the Confederate Army to recross the Potomac.”

September 20 Shepherdstown
November 3 Castleman’s Ferry
November 12 Colonel Livingston resigned due to poor health. Lieutenant Colonel J.M. Perrin was promoted to colonel, Major Norton to lieutenant colonel and Captain Francis E. Harrison of Company D was promoted to major.
December 13
Fredericksburg

The regiment lost 170 men when Federal troops broke through the lines and surprised the South Carolinians resting under stacked arms. Lieutenant Colonel Norton was wounded, losing his left arm, and Captain James T. Robertson was also wounded. General Gregg was killed, and Samuel McGowan took over the Brigade.

1863
March 25 Lieutenant Colonel Norton resigned due to his wound from Fredericksburg. Major Harrison was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain George M. Miller of Company G was promoted to major.
May 1-4
Battle of Chancellorsville

The regiment lost 49% of 233 men engaged.General McGowan was wounded. Colonel Perrin took command of the brigade and was mortally wounded on May 3. Lieutenant Colonel F. E. Harrison took command of the regiment.

May 5 Colonel Perrin died. Lieutenant Colonel Harrison was promoted to colonel, Major Miller was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain John B. Moore of Company L was promoted to major.
July 1-3
Battle of Gettysburg

The regiment lost 3% of the 366 men engaged.

From the monument to Perrin’s Brigade on the Gettysburg Battlefield:

July 1. Crossed Willoughby Run about 3.30 P. M. with its left in Reynolds Woods and advancing relieved Heth’s line. Took a prominent part in the struggle by which the Union forces were dislodged from Seminary Ridge and pursuing them into town captured many prisoners. The Rifle Regiment was on duty as train guard and not in the battle of this day.

July 2. Supported artillery south of Fairfield Road. At 6 P. M. advanced a battalion of Sharpshooters which skirmished with Union outposts until dark. At 10 P. M. took position on Ramseur’s right in the Long Lane leading from the town to the Bliss House and Barn.

July 3. In the same position and constantly engaged in skirmishing.

July 4. After night withdrew and began the march to Hagerstown.

Present about 1600 Killed 100 Wounded 477 Total 577

July 14 Falling Waters
August 28 Major Moore resigned due to ill health and Captain William H. Hadden of Company A was promoted to major.
October 9-22 Bristoe Campaign
November – December Mine Run
1864
April 7 Colonel Harrison retired to the Invalid Corps. Lieutenant Colonel Miller was promoted to colonel, Major Hadden was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Leonard Rogers of Company C was promoted to major.
May 5-7
Battle of The WIlderness

The regiment lost 12 killed and 81 wounded.

May 8-20
The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

The regiment lost 15 killed, 36 wounded and 44 missing, including Colonel Miller. Major Leonard Rogers was captured on May 12.

From the monument to McGowan’s South Carolina Brigade at the Bloody Angle:

“The Bloody Angle”

In the rainy gloom of May 12, 1864, Brigadier General Samuel McGowan’s brigade of South Carolinians battled their way into the disputed earthworks here, near the apex of the Muleshoe Salient. For eighteen hours the 1,300 South Carolinians defended these works against relentless attacks by thousands of Federals, sometimes engaging in hand-to-hand fighting. By battle’s end, 451 men of the brigade were killed, wounded, or missing. The slight angle in the works they defended would forever be known as the Bloody Angle.

May Captain James T. Robertson was promoted to major.
May 23-26 North Anna River
Poplar Springs Church

The regiment lost 9 killed and 37 wounded

June 1-3
Battle of Cold Harbor
July 28
Deep Bottom

The regiment lost 3 killed and 34 wounded. Lieutenant Colonel William H. Hadden was killed. Major Robertson took command of the regiment and was promoted to lieutenant colonel.

September 30 First Squirrel Level Road and Jones’ Farm
October 1 First Pegram’s Farm
1865
March 31 Gravelly Run
April 1 Five Forks
April 2
Dinwiddie Courthouse

Colonel George M. Miller was captured.

April 9
Appomattox Cour House

The 1st South Carolina Rifle Regiment surendered 9 officers and 148 men under Lieutenant Colonel James T. Robertson.