Confederate Regiments & Batteries > Virginia


1861
May 30 Organized in Harpers Ferry under Colonel William Westmoreland and Lt. Colonel John Echols.
June 1 Assigned to 1st Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah under Brigadier General Thomas J. Jackson.
June 2 Lieutenant Joseph Carpenter of Company A was promoted to Adjutant.
June 8 Mustered into Confederate service
June 12 Andrew Jackson Grigsby was elected major.
June 15 Evacuation of Harpers Ferry. The brigade marched to Bunker Hill to block the Winchester-Martinsburg Road
June 19-26 Destruction of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad around Martinsburg
June 7 Moved to Winchester
July 18 Marched from Winchester to the east, fording the Shenandoah at dusk and marching until after midnight.
July 19 Resumed the march at dawn, reaching Piedmont Station, where they boarded trains for Manassas. Arrived at Manassas late afternoon, marching to a position behind Blackburn’s and Mitchell’s Fords.
July 21
First Battle of Manassas ( Bull Run)

The 27th Virginia was commanded by Lt. Colonel Echols. It fought on Henry House Hill, losing 19 men killed and 122 wounded. The brigade and its commander earned the name, “Stonewall”

August 1 Moved to Camp Harman, a mile east of Centerville, the old camp having become so unhealthy it was nicknamed “Camp Maggot”
August 26 Adjutant Carpenter was promoted to Captain of Company A.
September 16 Moved from Camp Harman to a camp near Fairfax Court House
October 13 Brigadier General Jackson was promoted to Major General.
October 14 Colonel Westmoreland resigned. Lt. Colonel Echols was promoted to colonel, Major Grigsby was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Frank Paxton was appointed major of the regiment.
October 21 The Department of Northern Virginia was created. The regiment was assigned to the Second Corps of the Potomac District.
November 4 Major General Jackson was assigned to the District of the Valley.
November 7 The Brigade was transferred to Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia. The regiment marched to Manassas Junction, was moved by train to Strasburg, then marched to Kernstown.
November 12-13 After spending a day at Kernstown, the brigade marched through Winchester and made camp about five miles northeast of Winchester at Stephenson Depot, known as Camp Stephenson.
November 14 Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett was given command of the Stonewall Brigade
December 16 Expedition to destroy Dam #5 on the Potomac and wreck the C&O Canal. Marched 15 miles to Big Springs near Martinsburg, then after a few hours rest, another 13 miles to the dam location.
December 18-20 After several attempts to damage the dam a breach was finally made. Union artillery and infantry harassed the efforts, so most attempts were made under cover of night. The only casualty of the expedition was an artilleryman on one of the accompanying batteries (Chew’s Battery and the Rockbridge Artillery) was killed.
December 21 Retrned to Winchester
1862
January 1-26 Romney Campaign
January 1 Left Winchester for Romney at 5 am. Although the day began mild and sunny the weatther turned by afternoon, and the men bivouacked in a blizzard.
January 2 Resumed the march in the blizzard without food, as the supply trains had been unable to catch up.
January 3 The supply wagons caught up in time for breakfast, but fell behind by nightfall. After taking all day to cover only six miles, the men bivouaced four miles from Bath without food or shelter.
January 4 Arrived in Bath at noon, chasing out a smal Federal garrison. The army then marched eight more miles, halting across the Potomac from Federal forces at Hancock, Maryland.
January 5-6 Bombarded Hancock, whcih refused to surrender.
January 7 With Federal reinforcements on the waym withdrew from Hancock toward Romney and bivouaced near Unger’s Crossing in a very heavy snowfall.
January 8-14 Marched to Romney on roads made almost impassible by heavy snow and sleet. Wagons, caissons and artillery pieces had to be pulled by hand when the draft animals were unable to continue.
January 14-19 Camped at Romney
January 19-26 Returned to Winchester and went into winter quarters at Camp Zollicoffer, four miles north of town.
March 11 Marched north to meet Union forces advancing on the town but Banks declined to attack. The army marched south, with the plan to turn around and launch a night attack, but advance elements marched past the turn-around point and the attack plan was abandoned.
March 12-13 Marched 42 miles south through Strasburg to Mount Jackson.
March 14-21 At Camp Buchanan at Mount Jackson
March 22 Marched north to attack Union forces withdrawing down the valley, bivouacing at Cedar Creek.
March 23
First Battle of Kernstown

The army marched ten miles north from Cedar Creek and engaged Union forces at Kernstown. Colonel Echols was wounded with a shattered arm. Jackson’s position collapsed when his outnumbered men ran out of ammunition, and the army retreated to Newtown. The regiment lost 2 men killed, 20 wounded and 35 missing out of 170 engaged.

March 24 The army returned to Mount Jackson. Twelve men were killed or wounded when a Federal shell exploded in the midst of the regiment as it was forming up to move south. Lt. Colonel Andrew Grigsby took command of the regiment.
April 1 Jackson removed General Garnet from command of the brigade for withdrawing without orders at Kernstown and ordered him to Harrisburg under arrest. He was replaced by Brigadier General Charles Winder.
April 1-17 Camped at Rude’s Hill, south of Mount Jackson
April 16 Colonel Echols, stil convalescing from his wound at Kernstown, was promoted to brigadier general.
April 18-May Jackson’s Valley Campaign
April 18 March to Conrad’s Store at Swift Run Gap through driving rail and hail.
April 21-23 The army reorganization legislated by the Conscription Act led to the highest level of recruitment during the Civil War. The regiment reenlisted for three years or the war and was reorganized. Lt. Colonel Andrew Jackson Grigsby was elected colonel of the regiment. Major Paxton was voted out, but was taken onto Jackson’s staff.
April 30 The army moved out of the Valley over the Blue Ridge in the direction of Charlottesville.
May 3 The army boarded trains at Meechum’s River Station and returned to Staunton in the Valley.
May 7 Marched north from Staunton then northwest to McDowell, twenty miles away.
May 8
Battle of McDowell

The Stonewall Brigade was unengaged in reserve.

May 14 The army began its return march to Strasburg
May 16 The army celebrated a day of prayer and feasting ordered by President Davis for the victory at McDowell.A disagreement about enlistment terms caused a number of men to mutiny and throw down their arms. After a terse instruction from Jackson to Colonel Grigsby to “shoot them where they stand” the men reenlisted without argument.
May 18 Into camp at Mount Solon, ten miles south of Harrisonburg.
May 19 Marched to Harrisonburg and deposited knapsacks at the courthouse
May 20-22 To New Market, then east over Massanutton Mountain and north through the Luray Valley.
May 23
Battle of Front Royal

The regiment was not engaged

May 24 Marched north to Newtown, where the regiment looted abandoned Union wagons of food and clothing, and to within nine miles of Winchester by dusk. The advance continued through the night until 2 a.m.
May 25
First Battle of Winchester

After a brief rest, the regiment advanced until they found Banks’ army in line of battle on a low ridge south of Winchester. The brigade formed line of battle with the 27th on the left of the line and attacked the Union position, but were pinned down by heavy artillery fire. A second assault by the entire army caused the collapse of the entire Union line. The army pursued Banks five miles north of Winchester to Stephenson’s Depot, where the pursuit was called off.

May 26-27 Two day rest period at Winchester
May 28 Left Winchester at 5 a.m. for Charles Town. After forming line of battle a brief artillery duel caused the Federals to retreat. Marched to just outside Harpers Ferry, where the Federals occupied defensive positions on Bolivar Heights. The brigade withdrew to outside Charles Town. Captain Carpenter was offered promotion to lieutenant colonel but declined.
May 29 Bivouacked at Halltown
May 30 Waited for the return of the 2nd Virginia from Loudon heights, then marched for Winchester to escape entrapment by encircling Federal forces. Passed through Winchester and reached Newtown after nightfall in a pouring rain. The regiment marched 28 miles on the 30th.
June 1 Continued through Strasburg and a few miles south of town to rejoin Jackson’s main force, escaping the Union trap.
June 2-5 Withdrew to Harrisonbrg. The brigade served as the rear guard for the army.
June 6 Rested in line of battle
June 7 Marched to Port Republic
June 8 Skirmish for the bridges at Port Republic.
June 9
Battle of Port Republic

Crossed the river before dawn and formed for an attack in the wheatfield to the east of the river. Two attacks were pinned down by artilery fire but a third was successful, and the army followed the retreating Federals over five miles.

June 17 Marched over Brown’s Gap and on the way to Richmond.
June 25-July 1 Seven Days Battles
June 26 Reached Mechanicsville, camping four miles to the north at Hundley’s Corner.
June 27
Battle of Gaines’ Mill

The regiment made one of the final charges at dusk. The charge successfully carried the Union position but darkness ended the fighting.

June 28-29 On picket duty, burying the dead and gathering up discarded arms and equipment.
July 1
Battle of Malvern Hill

After taking most of the day to move into position the brigade attacked at dusk, facing terrific fire. The attack was called off with darkness. Colonel Grigsby was hit in the left breast but did not leave the field.

July 2 Advanced to the Union positions on Malvern Hill but found them abandoned. The brigade followed the retreating Federals to Harrison’s Landing.
July 3 Advanced on the Union camp but came under fire from large caliber naval guns, and the attack was called off.
July 4-7 Rested in camp
July 8 – 16 Moved to Richmond for a rest break and went into camp at Glenwood, a farm owned by Hugh Whie about three miles out of Richmond on the Mechanicsville Turnpike.
July 17 Moved north to Face Pope’s Army of Virginia
July 18-19 Camped at Hanover Junction
July 20-21 Marched to Gordonsville through Louisa County
July 22-29 Camped outside Gordonsville at Green Spring
July 24 Captain James Kerr Edmondson of Company H was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
July 30 Marched north along the Madison Court House Road to the Terrell farm
August 1-6 Training north of Gordonsville
August 7 Moved north from Gordonsville toward Pope
August 8 Forded the Rapidan River and went into bivouac a mile north of the river
August 9
Battle of Cedar Mountain

The regiment was commanded by Captain Charles L. Haynes. The regiment was the right flank regiment of the brigade. It was driven back in disorder after being outlanked, but reformed behind the 33rd Virginia. They drove ahead of the brigade in a second attack and were again driven back in disorder, falling back through A.P. Hill’s advancing lead brigade. They continued to the rear until rallied by Jackson himself, when the regiment joined Hill’s men. Captain Carpenter was mortally wounded, and would die in February of 1863.

August 10 Withdrew from the batlefield to near Gordonsville.
August 11-16 Five days rest in camp
August 15 Colonel Wiliam Baylor of the 5th Virginia took command of the brigade replacing General Winder, who had been mortally wounded at Cedar Mountain. The brigade broke camp at Gordonsville, and marched through Orange Court House to bivouac near Pisgah Church.
August 16-19 Rest days in camp.
August 18 Execution of four deserters from Jackson’s Division who had been captured in the Shenandoah Valley and returned to the army. Three men were from the 10th Virginia and one was from the 5th Virginia. Twelve men formed in the firing squad, half of whose rifles were loaded, while the condemned men knelt in front of their graves. The entire division formed in a three-sided square around the site, and after the men were executed marched past their graves.
August 19-21 Marched northest, fording the Rapidan River and reaching Jeffersonton.
August 22-24 Bivouaced at Jeffersonton in the rain without food or shelter, the wagons having been unable to keep up on the muddy roads.
August 25 Before dawn, the men prepared three days rations rations (and ate them), were issued 60 rounds of ammunition, and were ordereed to leave their knapsacks in an empty building. Marched north 25 miles to Salem
August 26 The march continued through the Thoroughfare Gap to Bristoe.
August 27 Entered Manassas just after dawn and marched past the mountains of food and supplies to take up a position north of town. In the afternoon the brigade loaded up as much as they could carry and headed north before the supply depot was put to the torch. The brigade reached a ridge near Groveton after having marched three days with ony about four hours sleep.
August 28
Battle of Groveton (Brawner’s Farm)

After resting on the ridge for most of the day the brigade ambushed the Union division of Rufus King marching by on the Warrenton Pike. A brutal close-range stand-up firefight developed with the Union Iron Brigade. Colonel Grigsby was twice lightly wounded but stayed on the field. At the end of the battle the regiment could only muster 25 men of the 65 who had started, having lost 4 killed and 24 wounded.

August 29-30
2nd Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

The regiment, which numbered only 45 men, was lightly engaged on the 29th, driving off a Federal probe from a position in front of the unfinished railroad before it was pulled back to the line. On the 30th the morning was quiet, but in the afternoon three heavy Federal attacks were driven back. Many of the men ran out of ammunition and defended the position with bayonets or thrown rocks until Longstreet’s assault saved the line from collapse. Colonel Baylor was killed in the afternoon fighting, and Colonel Grigsby took command of the brigade. The regiment lost 1 officer killed and 1 wounded in the two days fighting.

September 1
Battle of Chantilly

The regiment was in reserve during the battle, which was fought in a tremendous thunderstorm.

September 4 Marched north and west toward Leesburg.
September 5 Marched through Leesburg and forded the Potomac at White’s Ford while the brigade band played Maryland, My Maryland.
September 6-7 Marched to a camp just north of Frederick, Maryland.
September 8-9 The regiment rested, fed, and re-clothed itself.
September 10-12 Marched west through Boonsboro to cross the Potomac at Williamsport, on to Martinsburg, where the Union garrison had retreated, and south to Harpers Ferry. The men march 60 miles, crossed two mountain ranges, and forded the Potomac.
September 13-15 Siege and surrender of Harpers Ferry.
September 17
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The 27th was commanded by Captain Frank C. Wilson. The brigade, mustering a little over 250 men, was attacked at dawn by Hooker’s First Corps. After a brutal seesaw battle it was forced back to the west woods, when Early’s Brigade arrived as reinforcements. The brigade helped throw back the assault by Williams’ Union Division, then was pulled into reserve as fighting on the north end of the battlefield died down. The men were distributed salt pork, their first meal since Harpers Ferry.

September
18
Remained in place on the battlefield.
September 19 Marched south, recrossing the Potomac at Boteler’s Ford east of Shepherdstown and halting north of Winchester. One soldier wrote that the regiment had only twelve men.
September Went into camp north of Winchester.
October 27 Skirmish near Kearneysville. One man was wounded
November 1 Major Frank Paxton, a brigade staff officer, was promoted to command the Stonewall Brigade
November 12 Colonel Grigsby resigned, embittered at being passed over for command of the Stonewall brigade after leading it as senior colonel through Second Manassas and Sharpsburg.
November 19 Lieutenant Colonel Edmondson was promoted to colonel.
November 22 –
December 2
The Stonewall Brigade marched south and over the Blue Ridge at Luray Gap, through Orange Court House and Madison Court House, through Gordonsville, to Guiney’s Station.
December 2-11 Camped at Guiney’s Station
December 12 Marched at dawn to Hamilton’s Crossing outside Fredericksburg, then moved onto the bluffs in support of Gregg’s Brigade.
December 13
Battle of Fredericksburg

The brigade was under artillery bombardment in the morning. In the afternoon it was brought forward to repel a Union breakthrough. The regiment’s advance was blocked by defending Confederate Units, and did not participate in the fighting.

December 18 Moved to Camp Winder, winter quarters at Moss Neck, three miles frm Guniey’s Station. The regiment mustered 208 men.
1863
February Six men of the Stonewall Brigade were convicted by court-martial of desertion. One was given six months hard labor, one was flogged (which would be prohibited by law in April) and three were to be shot, but their sentences were commuted by President Davis.
April 23 Captain Philip F. Frazer of Company E was promoted to major.
April 28-May 6 Chancellorsville Campaign
April 28 Marched to Hamilton’s Crossing
May 1 Marched west to near Chancellorsville and bivouaced on the Plank Road
May 2
Battle of Chancellorsville

Beginning at dawn, marched around the Union right flank. The Stonewall Brigade was positioned on the right flank of assault and held in reserve to guard the Plank Road. After the main attack was launched the brigade moved to the left flank of Jacksn’s force. There was “Great consternation” when the news spread that Jackson had been wounded.

May 3
Battle of Chancellorsville (continued)

The fighting resumed at dawn. The brigade advanced 300 yards across the Plank Road and assaulted Union breastworks, passing thrugh McGowan’s South Carolina Brigade. After intense fighting the brigade was forced back with heavy casualties. A second charge was successful in taking the Union position. After persuing to the Chancellor clearing, the brigade, out of ammunition and with heavy casualties, was pulled back to the line of Union breastworks they had taken to regroup. After replenishing ammunition and resting they moved forward in the afternoon and took up a forward position.The regiment lost 9 men killed, 63 wounded and 1 man missing in the battle, mostly in the two charges on the breastworks on May 3. Colonel Edmondson’s left arm was mangled by an artillery shell and had to be amputated at the shoulder.

May 4 Threw up breastworks and remained in defensive positions covering the Union line.
May 7 The brigade returned to Hamilton’s Crossing east of Fredericksburg and formed Camp Paxton
May 10 The news of “Stonewall” Jackson’s death reached the brigade
May 19 Brigadier General James A. Walker was appointed to command the brigade. All five regimental commanders resigned to protest the command being given to someone outside the brigade (althought Walker had served briefly in the 4th Virginia at the start of the war) but Lee talked the commanders into withdrawing their resignations.
May 30 The War Department granted the brigade’s request that they be officially known as the Stonewall Brigade, becoming the only unit larger than a regiment in the army to have an official nickname.
June 8-9 The brigade left Camp Paxton and marched to Culpeper.
June 9-10 Rested at Culpeper
June 11-12 Moved through Chester Gap to Front Royal
June 13 Marched for Winchester at 4 a.m., reaching the town around noon. The brigade guarded the Front Royal Road.
June 14
Second Battle of Winchester

Secured the high ground east of Winchester, skirmishing with Union forces

June 15
Second Battle of Winchester (Battle of Stephenson’s Depot)

After a night march, the brigade reached the battlefield at dawn and attacked Milroy’s retreating men. The surrounded Federals were forced t surrender, with the Stonewall Brigade capturing over 800 men while losing only 3 men killed, 16 wunded, and 19 men missing.

July 1
Battle of Gettysburg

The regiment was commanded by Lt. Colonel Daniel M. Shriver. At noon, moved eastward behind Longstreet’s wagons across South Mountain. Reached the battlefield at nightfall after a 25 mile march and passed through Gettysburg, halting a mile east of town on the Hanover Road.

July 2
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)

Remained in position skirmishing on the Army’s left flank. After sundown the brigade left a picket to guard the Hanover road and moved to join the attack Culp’s Hill. But the attack had stalled, and rhe brigade took position behind Steuart’s Brigade on the left of the line.

July 3
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)

The fighting started at first light. The Stonewall Brigade went to the support of Steuart’s Brigade, who were trying to assault Culp’s Hill while fighting off a Federal counterattack. The fighting continued for five hours, when the division was pulled back to Benner’s Hill around 9 a.m.

The brigade replenished its ammunition and cleaned their guns before returning to the attack, moving in between Jones’ and Nicholls’ Brigades on the right of the line. The three brigades were subjected to a heavy artillrery fire for 45 minutes before they were pulled back. A third attack went forward around noon which broke through the first line of Frderal positions before falling back with heavy casualties.

Out of the 148 men engaged the regiment lost 11 men killed, 29 wounded and 8 missing. Captain John Welsh suffered a leg wound which turned gangrenous, Captain Charles Haynes was wounded in the groin, and 1st Lieutenant James Gillock was captured.

July 4 Moved to a defensive position along Oak Ridge northwest of Gettysburg. After dark the brigade began its march to Hagerstown in a violent thunderstorm.
July 14 Crossed the Potomac and camped at Darkesville.
July 18 Crossed the Blue Ridge through Thomas Gap on the way to Orange Court House.
July-August Camped on the Plank Road near Montpelier.
September 4 Captain Charles L. Haynes of Company C was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
September 7 Marched to Morton’s Ford.
September Guard duty at Morton’s Ford. The regiment was commanded by Colonel James K. Edmondson.
November 26 Moved to the Rapidan earthworks.
November 27
Battle of Mine Run

Marched at dawn for Mine Run and deployed on the left of the army.

November 28-30 Remained in defensive positions until Meade retreated across the rapidan.
December Went into winter quarters near Pisgah Church, named Camp Stonewall Jackson.
December 12 Colonel Edmondson resigned due to his wound from Chancellorsville.
1864
January Meat rations were reduced to four ounces of bacon, twelve ounces of beef, and ten ounces of flour. Many of the men were without shoes or socks.
February 6-7 Morton’s Ford
March 23 The Great Snowball Fight pitted the Stonewall Brigade and Stafford’s Louisiana Brigade against Doles’ Georgia Brigade and Ramseur’s North Carolina Brigade.
May 4 Broke camp and moved to Locust Grove on the Orange-Fredericksburg Turnpike.
May 4-5
Battle of the Wilderness

On the first day the brigade was engaged in heavy fighting on the northwest side of the Germanna Plank Road until they were relieved at dusk by Hays’ Louisiana Brigade. On the second day the brigade held defensive positions against Federal probing attacks and sharpshooters. Nineteen year old Major Philip Frazer was killed by a wound to the head.

May 8 The brigade marched until dawn, when they were given a two hour break. The march then resumed at a fast pace in the hot, dry dusty day. After a sixteen hour march they reached Spotsylvania Court House, where they were double timed into line of battle under artillery fire. The men then spent the night digging in to their positions on the side of the “Mule Shoe.”.
May 9 The men continued to improve their earthworks.
May 10 A Federal attack on the part of the line held by Doles’ Brigade on the left of the Stonewall Brigade broke through the lines. The 2nd and 33rd regiments on the left flank of the brigade fell back, but General Walker steadied the line and led a counterattack that helped drive the Federals back and restored the line. Lieutenant Colonel Haynes was wounded and captured.
May 12
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

A major Federal attack punched through the Confederate line north of the brigade and overwhelmed the Confederate defenders from front, flank and rear. Most of the Stonewall Brigade was killed or captured, with the survivors of the brigade falling back on the 2nd Virginia, which had escaped encirclement. The remnants of the brigade fought for the rest of the day in a pouring rain to hold back the Federal assault until a secondary defensive line could be prepared to the rear.

May 14 The 249 survivors of the Stonewall Brigade were consolidated under the command of Colonel Terry of the 4th Virginia in a brigade that was made up of the remnants of 14 Virginia regiments.
May 17
Battle of North Anna

Terry’s Brigade was in reserve and not engaged.

May 30 Bethesda Church
June 1-3
Battle of Cold Harbor

Terry’s Brigade was in reserve and not engaged.

June Lynchburg Campaign
June 13-15 Marched west through Mechanicsville to Louisa Court House.
June 16 Marched 28 miles to reach Charlottesville after dark.
June 17 Boarded a train to be taken to Lynchburg but the engine broke down. The men continued their march on foot, arriving after Hunter’s Federals had withdrawn from the city.
June 21 Received the first rations in two days – a quarter pound of bacon and a pound of stale cornbread.
June 23 Marched north on the Valley Pike
June 25 Reached Lexington. The Army of the Valley, led by the survivors of the Stonewall Brigade, filed past Jackson’s grave.
July-October
Early’s Valley Campaign

Assigned to Terry’s Consolidated Brigade, Gordon’s Division, Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia

June 26-July 2 Marched north down the Shenandoah Valley to Winchester.
July 3-5 Contined the march north, crossing the Potomac at Williamsport.
July-October Early’s Valley Campaign
July 9
Battle of Monocacy
July 18 Snicker’s Ferry
August 30 Lieutenant Colonel Haynes was exchanged and returned to the regiment.
September 19
Third Battle of Winchester
September 22
Battle of Fisher’s Hill
October 19
Battle of Cedar Creek
December 9 Terry’s Brigade, with the survivors of the Stonewall Brigade, leave the Shenandoah Valley for the last time to join the fighting around Richmond and Petersburg.
December
Petersburg Siege

Assigned to Terry’s Consolidated Brigade, Gordon’s Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

1865
February Lieutenant Colonel Haynes commanded the Stonewall Brigade.
February 5-7
Battle of Hatcher’s Run
March 25
Fort Stedman
April 6
Sayler’s Creek
April 9
Appomottox Court House

The 27th Virginia surrendered 1 officer and 20 men