Confederate Regiments & Batteries > Virginia


1861
June Assembled in Winchester, Virginia under Colonel James Preston, Lieutenant Colonel Lewis T. Moore.
June 1 Designated 4th Infantry Regiment and assigned to 1st Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah under Brigadier General Thomas J. Jackson.
June 8 Mustered into Confederate service
June 15 Evacuation of Harpers Ferry. The brigade marched to Bunker Hill to block the Winchester-Martinsburg Road
June 19-26 Destruction of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad around Martinsburg
July 2
Battle of Falling Waters

The regiment was in reserve

June 7 Moved to Winchester
July 18 Marched from Winchester to the east, fording the Shenandoah at dusk and marching until after midnight.
July 19 Resumed the march at dawn, reaching Piedmont Station, where they boarded trains for Manassas. Arrived at Manassas late afternoon, marching to a position behind Blackburn’s and Mitchell’s Fords.
July 21
First Battle of Manassas ( Bull Run)

The regiment fought on Henry House Hill, losing 31 men killed and 100 wounded. Colonel Preston and Lt. Colonel Moore were wounded; neither would return to the regiment.

August 1 Moved to Camp Harman, a mile east of Centerville, the old camp having become so unhealthy it was nicknamed “Camp Maggot”
September 16 Moved from Camp Harman to a camp near Fairfax Court House
October 13 Brigadier General Jackson was promoted to Major General.
October 21 The Department of Northern Virginia was created. The regiment was assigned to the Second Corps of the Potomac District.
November 4 Major General Jackson was assigned to the District of the Valley.
November 7 The Brigade was transferred to Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia. The regiment was to be moved by train to the Valley. They marched to Manassas Junction but there were not enough cars for the regiment, so it camped in the open in a pouring rain to wait for the train to return the next day.
November 9-11 The regiment moved by train to Strasburg, spent the night in the boxcars, then marched to Winchester the next day.
November 12-13 After spending a day at Kernstown, the brigade marched through Winchester and made camp about five miles northeast of Winchester at Stephenson Depot, known as Camp Stephenson.
November 14 Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett was given command of the Stonewall Brigade
December 16 Expedition to destroy Dam #5 on the Potomac and wreck the C&O Canal. Marched 15 miles to Big Springs near Martinsburg, then after a few hours rest, another 13 miles to the dam location.
December 18-20 After several attempts to damage the dam a breach was finally made. Union artillery and infantry harassed the efforts, so most attempts were made under cover of night. The only casualty of the expedition was an artilleryman on one of the accompanying batteries (Chew’s Battery and the Rockbridge Artillery) was killed.
December 21 Retrned to Winchester
1862
January 1-26 Romney Campaign
January 1 Left Winchester for Romney at 5 am. Although the day began mild and sunny the weatther turned by afternoon, and the men bivouacked in a blizzard.
January 2 Resumed the march in the blizzard without food, as the supply trains had been unable to catch up.
January 3 The supply wagons caught up in time for breakfast, but fell behind by nightfall. After taking all day to cover only six miles, the men bivouaced four miles from Bath without food or shelter.
January 4 Arrived in Bath at noon, chasing out a smal Federal garrison. The army then marched eight more miles, halting across the Potomac from Federal forces at Hancock, Maryland.
January 5-6 Bombarded Hancock, whcih refused to surrender.
January 7 With Federal reinforcements on the waym withdrew from Hancock toward Romney and bivouaced near Unger’s Crossing in a very heavy snowfall.
January 8-14 Marched to Romney on roads made almost impassible by heavy snow and sleet. Wagons, caissons and artillery pieces had to be pulled by hand when the draft animals were unable to continue.
January 14-19 Camped at Romney
January 19-26 Returned to Winchester and went into winter quarters at Camp Zollicoffer, four miles north of town.
January 20 Colonel Preston died of disease caused by his Manassas wound.
January 31 Captain Albert G. Pendleton of Company D was promotted to major.
March 11 Marched north to meet Union forces advancing on the town but Banks declined to attack. The army marched south, with the plan to turn around and launch a night attack, but advance elements marched past the turn-around point and the attack plan was abandoned.
March 12-13 Marched 42 miles south through Strasburg to Mount Jackson.
March 14-21 At Camp Buchanan at Mount Jackson
March 22 Marched north to attack Union forces withdrawing down the valley, bivouacing at Cedar Creek.
March 23
First Battle of Kernstown

The army marched ten miles north from Cedar Creek and engaged Union forces at Kernstown. The regiment lost 5 men killed, 23 men wounded and 48 missing out of 203 men engaged. Jackson’s position collapsed when his outnumbered men ran out of ammunition, and the army retreated to Newtown.

March 24 The army returned to Mount Jackson.
April 1 Jackson removed General Garnet from command of the brigade for withdrawing without orders at Kernstown and ordered him to Harrisburg under arrest. He was replaced by Brigadier General Charles Winder.
April 18-May Jackson’s Valley Campaign
April 21-23 The army reorganization legislated by the Conscription Act led to the highest level of recruitment during the Civil War. The regiment reenlisted for three years or the war and was reorganized. Captain Charles A. Ronald of Company E was elected colonel of the regiment and Captain Robert D. Gardiner of Company C was elected to lieutenant colonel.
April 30 The army moved out of the Valley over the Blue Ridge in the direction of Charlottesville.
May 3 The army boarded trains at Meechum’s River Station and returned to Staunton in the Valley.
May 7 Marched north from Staunton then northwest to McDowell, twenty miles away.
May 8
Battle of McDowell

The Stonewall Brigade was unengaged in reserve.

May 14 The army began its return march to Strasburg
May 16 The army celebrated a day of prayer and feasting ordered by President Davis for the victory at McDowell
May 18 Into camp at Mount Solon, ten miles south of Harrisonburg.
May 19 Marched to Harrisonburg and deposited knapsacks at the courthouse
May 20-22 To New Market, then east over Massanutton Mountain and north through the Luray Valley.
May 23
Battle of Front Royal

The regiment was not engaged

May 24 Marched north to Newtown and to within nine miles of Winchester by dusk. The advance continued through the night until 2 a.m.
May 25
First Battle of Winchester

After a brief rest, the regiment advanced until they found Banks’ army in line of battle on a low ridge south of Winchester. The brigade formed line of battle with the 4th in the center of the line and attacked the Union position, but were pinned down by heavy artillery fire. A second assault by the entire army caused the collapse of the entire Union line. The army pursued Banks five miles north of Winchester to Stephenson’s Depot, where the pursuit was called off.

May 26-27 Two day rest period at Winchester
May 28 Left Winchester at 5 a.m. for Charles Town. After forming line of battle a brief artillery duel caused the Federals to retreat. Marched to just outside Harpers Ferry, where the Federals occupied defensive positions on Bolivar Heights. The brigade withdrew to outside Charles Town.
May 29 Bivouacked at Halltown
May 30 Waited for the return of the 2nd Virginia from Loudon heights, then marched for Winchester to escape entrapment by encircling Federal forces. Passed through Winchester and reached Newtown after nightfall in a pouring rain. The regiment marched 28 miles on the 30th.
June 1 Continued through Strasburg and a few miles south of town to rejoin Jackson’s main force, escaping the Union trap.
June 2-5 Withdrew to Harrisonbrg. The brigade served as the rear guard for the army.
June 6 Rested in line of battle
June 7 Marched to Port Republic
June 8 Skirmish for the bridges at Port Republic.
June 9
Battle of Port Republic

The regiment numbered 317 effectives. Crossed the river before dawn and formed for an attack in the wheatfield to the east of the river. When the attack was pinned down by artilery fire the regiment was sent in a flank attack, which was thrown back. A final frontal assault was successful, and the army followed the retreating Federals over five miles.

June 17 Marched over Brown’s Gap and on the way to Richmond.
June 25-July 1 Seven Days Battles
June 26 Reached Mechanicsville, camping four miles to the north at Hundley’s Corner.
Seven Days Battles
June 27 Battle of Gaines’ Mill

The regiment made one of the final charges at dusk. The charge successfully carried the Union position but darkness ended the fighting.

June 28-29 On picket duty, burying the dead and gathering up discarded arms and equipment.
July 1 Battle of Malvern Hill

After taking most of the day to move into position the brigade attacked at dusk, facing terrific fire. The attack was called off with darkness. The regiment lost 7 killed and 25 wounded

July 2 Advanced to the Union positions on Malvern Hill but found them abandoned. The brigade followed the retreating Federals to Harrison’s Landing.
July 3 Advanced on the Union camp but came under fire from large caliber naval guns, and the attack was called off.
July 4-7 Rested in camp
July 8 – 16 Moved to Richmond for a rest break and went into camp at Glenwood, a farm owned by Hugh Whie about three miles out of Richmond on the Mechanicsville Turnpike.
July 17 Moved north to Face Pope’s Army of Virginia
July 18-19 Camped at Hanover Junction
July 20-21 Marched to Gordonsville through Louisa County
July 22-29 Camped outside Gordonsville at Green Spring
July 30 Marched north along the Madison Court House Road to the Terrell farm
August 1-6 Training north of Gordonsville
August 7 Moved north from Gordonsville toward Pope
August 8 Forded the Rapidan River and went into bivouac a mile north of the river
August 9 Battle of Cedar Mountain

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert D. Gardner while Colonel Charles Ronald temporarily commanded the brigade. The regiment was on the left flank of the brigade.

August 10 Withdrew from the batlefield to near Gordonsville
August 11-16 Five days rest in camp
August 15 Colonel Wiliam Baylor of the 5th Virginia took command of the brigade replacing General Winder, who had been mortally wounded at Cedar Mountain. The brigade broke camp at Gordonsville, and marched through Orange Court House to bivouac near Pisgah Church.
mid-August Lt. Colonel Gardner took command of the regiment
August 16-19 Rest days in camp.
August 18 Execution of four deserters from Jackson’s Division who had been captured in the Shenandoah Valley and returned to the army. Three men were from the 10th Virginia and one was from the 5th Virginia. Twelve men formed in the firing squad, half of whose rifles were loaded, while the condemned men knelt in front of their graves. The entire division formed in a three-sided square around the site, and after the men were killed marched ast their graves.
August 19-21 Marched northest, fording the Rapidan River and reaching Jeffersonton.
August 22-24 Bivouaced at Jeffersonton in the rain without food or shelter, the wagons having been unable to keep up on the muddy roads.
August 25 Before dawn, the men prepared three days rations rations (and ate them), were issued 60 rounds of ammunition, and were ordereed to leave their knapsacks in an empty building. Marched north 25 miles to Salem
August 26 The march continued through the Thoroughfare Gap to Bristoe.
August 27 Entered Manassas just after dawn and marched past the mountains of food and supplies to take up a position north of town. In the afternoon the brigade loaded up as much as they could carry and headed north before the supply depot was put to the torch. The brigade reached a ridge near Groveton after having marched three days with ony about four hours sleep.
August 28
Battle of Groveton (Brawner’s Farm)

After resting on the ridge for most of the day the brigade ambushed the Union division of Rufus King marching by on the Warrenton Pike. A brutal close-range stand-up firefight developed with the Union Iron Brigade. The regiment brought 180 men to the field and lost 76 casualties. Major William Terry was wounded.

August 29-30
2nd Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Gardner ansd was was lightly engaged on the 29th. On the 30th the morning was quiet, but in the afternoon three heavy Federal attacks were driven back. Colonel Baylor was killed in the afternoon fighting, and Colonel Grigsby of the 27th Virginia took command of the brigade. Many of the men ran out of ammunition and defended the position with bayonets or thrown rocks until Longstreet’s assault saved the line from collapse. The regiment lost 19 men killed and 78 wounded. Captain Matthew Bennett was wounded.

September 1
Battle of Chantilly

The regiment was in reserve during the battle, which was fought in a tremendous thunderstorm.

September 4 Marched north and west toward Leesburg.
September 5 Marched through Leesburg and forded the Potomac at White’s Ford while the brigade band played Maryland, My Maryland.
September 6-7 Marched to a camp just north of Frederick, Maryland.
September 8-9 The regiment rested, fed, and re-clothed itself.
September 10-12 Marched west through Boonsboro to cross the Potomac at Williamsport, on to Martinsburg, where the Union garrison had retreated, and south to Harpers Ferry. The men marched 60 miles, crossed two mountain ranges, and forded the Potomac.
September 13-15 Siege and surrender of Harpers Ferry
September 16 Began march to Antietam Creek at 2 a.m. Reached Sharpsburg mid-afternoon after a 17 mile march and took position on the west end of the Confederate line 700 yards north of the Dunker Church.
September 17
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The brigade, mustering a little over 250 men, was attacked at dawn by Hooker’s First Corps. After a brutal seesaw battle it was forced back to the west woods, when Early’s Brigade arrived as reinforcements. The brigade helped throw back the assault by Williams’ Union Division, then was pulled into reserve as fighting on the north end of the battlefield died down. The men were distributed salt pork, their first meal since Harpers Ferry. The 4th Virginia lost 3 men killed and 21 wounded. Lt. Colonel Gardner temporarily took over the brigade while Colonel Grigsby took command of the division, but Gardner was then wounded himself..

September
18
Remained in place on the battlefield.
September 19 Marched south, recrossing the Potomac at Boteler’s Ford east of Shepherdstown and halting north of Winchester.
September Went into camp near Berryville.
October 16 Colonel Ronald wounded in the thigh by a shell near Kearneysville.
October 27 Skirmish near Kearneysville. Three men were killed and 14 wounded.
November 1 Major Frank Paxton, a brigade staff officer, was promoted to command the Stonewall Brigade
November The regiment was confined to camp due to an epidemic of smallpox.
November 22 -December 2 The Stonewall Brigade marched south and over the Blue Ridge at Luray Gap, through Orange Court House and Madison Court House, through Gordonsville, to Guiney’s Station.
December 2-11 Camped at Guiney’s Station
December 13
Battle of Fredericksburg

The brigade was under artillery bombardment in the morning. In the afternoon it was brought forward to repel a Union breakthrough. The regiment lost three men killed and 47 wounded. Lt. Colonel Gardner was seriously wounded in the jaw and shoulder by artillery shell fragments and was forced to leave field service. Major Terry took command of the regiment.

December 18 Moved to Camp Winder, winter quarters at Moss Neck, three miles frm Guniey’s Station. The regiment mustered 367 men.
1863
February Six men of the Stonewall Brigade were convicted by court-martial of desertion. One was given six months hard labor, one was flogged (which would be prohibited by law in April) and three were to be shot, but their sentences were commuted by President Davis.
April 28-May 6 Chancellorsville Campaign
April 28 Marched to Hamilton’s Crossing
May 1 Marched west to near Chancellorsville and bivouaced on the Plank Road
May 2
Battle of Chancellorsville

Beginning at dawn, marched around the Union right flank. The Stonewall Brigade was positioned on the right flank of assault and held in reserve to guard the Plank Road. After the main attack was launched the brigade moved to the left flank of Jacksn’s force. There was “Great consternation” when the news spread that Jackson had been wounded.

May 3
Battle of Chancellorsville (continued)

The fighting resumed at dawn. The brigade advanced 300 yards across the Plank Road and assaulted Union breastworks, passing thrugh McGowan’s South Carolina Brigade. After intense fighting the brigade was forced back with heavy casualties. A second charge was successful in taking the Union position. After persuing to the Chancellor clearing, the brigade, out of ammunition and with heavy casualties, was pulled back to the line of Union breastworks they had taken to regroup. After replenishing ammunition and resting they moved forward in the afternoon and took up a forward position.

Out of 355 engaged in the battle the regiment lost 18 men killed, 148 wounded, and 3 missing, mostly in ten minutes fighting in the two charges on the breastworks on May 3. General Paxton was killed.

May 4 Threw up breastworks and remained in defensive positions covering the Union line.
May 7 The brigade returned to Hamilton’s Crossing east of Fredericksburg and formed Camp Paxton
May 10 The news of “Stonewall” Jackson’s death reaches the brigade
May 19 Brigadier General James A. Walker was appointed to command the brigade. All five regimental commanders resigned to protest the command being given to someone outside the brigade (althought Walker had served briefly in the 4th Virginia at the start of the war) but Lee talked the commanders into withdrawing their resignations.
May 30 The War Department granted the brigade’s request that they be officially known as the Stonewall Brigade, becoming the only unit larger than a regiment in the army to have an official nickname.
June 8-9 The brigade left Camp Paxton and marched to Culpeper.
June 9-10 Rested at Culpeper
June 11-12 Moved through Chester Gap to Front Royal
June 13 Marched for Winchester at 4 a.m., reaching the town around noon. The brigade guarded the Front Royal Road.
June 14
Second Battle of Winchester

Secured the high ground east of Winchester, skirmishing with Union forces

June 15
Second Battle of Winchester (Battle of Stephenson’s Depot)

After a night march, the brigade reached the battlefield at dawn and attacked Milroy’s retreating men. The surrounded Federals were forced to surrender, with the Stonewall Brigade capturing over 800 men while losing only 3 men killed, 16 wounded, and 19 men missing.

July 1
Battle of Gettysburg

The regiment was commanded by Major William Terry. At noon, moved eastward behind Longstreet’s wagons across South Mountain. Reached the battlefield at nightfall after a 25 mile march and passed through Gettysburg, halting a mile east of town on the Hanover Road.

July 2
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)

Remained in position skirmishing on the Army’s left flank. After sundown the brigade left a picket to guard the Hanover road and moved to join the attack Culp’s Hill. But the attack had stalled, and rhe brigade took position behind Steuart’s Brigade on the left of the line.

July 3
Battle of Gettysburg (continued)

The fighting started at first light. The Stonewall Brigade went to the support of Steuart’s Brigade, who were trying to assault Culp’s Hill while fighting off a Federal counterattack. The fighting continued for five hours, when the division was pulled back to Benner’s Hill around 9 a.m.

The brigade replenished its ammunition and cleaned their guns before returning to the attack, moving in between Jones’ and Nicholls’ Brigades on the right of the line. The three brigades were subjected to a heavy artillrery fire for 45 minutes before they were pulled back. A third attack went forward around noon which broke through the first line of Frderal positions before falling back with heavy casualties.

Out of the 257 men engaged during the three days of the battle the regiment lost 18 men killed, 63 wounded and 56 missing. Lieutenant J. Kent Ewing was killed. Captain W.P.F. Lee and Lieutenants J.T. Howe, R.J. Glendy and John T. Sayers were wounded and captured. Lieutenant William B. Gardner was captured.

July 4 Moved to a defensive position along Oak Ridge northwest of Gettysburg. After dark the brigade began its march to Hagerstown in a violent thunderstorm.
July 14 Crossed the Potomac and camped at Darkesville.
Colonel Terry was promoted to colonel.
July 18 Crossed the Blue Ridge through Thomas Gap on the way to Orange Court House.
July-August Camped on the Plank Road near Montpelier.
September 7 Marched to Morton’s Ford.
September 11 Colonel Charles A. Ronald resigned due to disease combined with his wound from Kearneysville.
September 15 Captain Matthew D. Bennett of Company E was promoted to major.
September Guard duty at Morton’s Ford.
October 26 Skirmish with Federal cavalry near Bealton Station.
November 26 Moved to the Rapidan earthworks.
November 27
Battle of Mine Run

Marched at dawn for Mine Run and deployed on the left of the army. Major William Terry, in command of the regiment, suffered a serious shoulder wound.

November 28-30 Remained in defensive positions until Meade retreated across the rapidan.
December Went into winter quarters near Pisgah Church, named Camp Stonewall Jackson.
1864
January Meat rations were reduced to four ounces of bacon, twelve ounces of beef, and ten ounces of flour. Many of the men were without shoes or socks.
February 6-7 Morton’s Ford
March 23 The Great Snowball Fight pitted the Stonewall Brigade and Stafford’s Louisiana Brigade against Doles’ Georgia Brigade and Ramseur’s North Carolina Brigade.
April 9 Lieutenant Colonel Gardner retured due to his wounds from Fredericksburg.
May 4 Broke camp and moved to Locust Grove on the Orange-Fredericksburg Turnpike.
May 5-6
Battle of the Wilderness

On the first day the brigade was engaged in heavy fighting on the northwest side of the Germanna Plank Road until they were relieved at dusk by Hays’ Louisiana Brigade. The regiment lost five men killed and 45 wounded out of less than 100 engaged.

On the second day the brigade held defensive positions against Federal probing attacks and sharpshooters.

May 8 The brigade marched until dawn, when they were given a two hour break. The march then resumed at a fast pace in the hot, dry dusty day. After a sixteen hour march they reached Spotsylvania Court House, where they were double timed into line of battle under artillery fire. The men then spent the night digging in to their positions on the side of the “Mule Shoe.”.
May 9 The men continued to improve their earthworks.
May 10 A Federal attack on the part of the line held by Doles’ Brigade on the left of the Stonewall Brigade broke through the lines. The 2nd and 33rd regiments on the left flank of the brigade fell back, but General Walker steadied the line and led a counterattack that helped drive the Federals back and restored the line.
May 12
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

A major Federal attack punched through the Confederate line north of the brigade and overwhelmed the Confederate defenders from front, flank and rear. Most of the Stonewall Brigade was killed or captured, with the survivors of the brigade falling back on the 2nd Virginia, which had escaped encirclement. The remnants of the brigade fought for the rest of the day in a pouring rain to hold back the Federal assault until a secondary defensive line could be prepared to the rear. Colonel Terry suffered two minor wounds but escaped capture and remained on the field.

May 14 The 249 survivors of the Stonewall Brigade were consolidated under the command of Colonel Terry of the 4th Virginia in a brigade that was made up of the remnants of 14 Virginia regiments.
May 17
Battle of North Anna

Terry’s Brigade was in reserve and not engaged.

May 30 Bethesda Church
June 1-3
Battle of Cold Harbor

Terry’s Brigade was in reserve and not engaged.

June Lynchburg Campaign
June 13-15 Marched west through Mechanicsville to Louisa Court House.
June 16 Marched 28 miles to reach Charlottesville after dark.
June 17 Boarded a train to be taken to Lynchburg but the engine broke down. The men continued their march on foot, arriving after Hunter’s Federals had withdrawn from the city.
June 21 Received the first rations in two days – a quarter pound of bacon and a pound of stale cornbread.
June 23 Marched north on the Valley Pike
June 25 Reached Lexington. The Army of the Valley, led by the survivors of the Stonewall Brigade, filed past Jackson’s grave.
July-October Early’s Valley Campaign

Assigned to Terry’s Consolidated Brigade, Gordon’s Division, Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia

June 26-July 2 Marched north down the Shenandoah Valley to Winchester.
July 3-5 Continued the march north, crossing the Potomac at Williamsport.
July 9
Battle of Monocacy
July 18 Snicker’s Ferry
July 24 2nd Kernstown and Winchester
August 11 Newton
August 17 Winchester
August 25 Sheperdstown
September 19
Third Battle of Winchester

Major Matthew Bennett was wounded.

September 22
Battle of Fisher’s Hill
October 19
Battle of Cedar Creek
December 9 Terry’s Brigade, with the survivors of the Stonewall Brigade, leave the Shenandoah Valley for the last time to join the fighting around Richmond and Petersburg.
December
Petersburg Siege

Assigned to Terry’s Consolidated Brigade, Gordon’s Division, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

1865
February 5-7
Battle of Hatcher’s Run
March 25 Fort Stedman
April 6
Battle of Sayler’s Creek
Aprli 9
Appomattox Court House

Surrendered 7 officers and 38 men, of whom only 17 were armed