The 12th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized in Richmond, Virginia in July of 1861 and was surrendered at Appomattox Court House in April of 1865. It mustered 1,196 original recruits and 321 reinforcements during the Civil War. Nearly 250 of these men died in battle and about 200 died of disease.
|July||Organized in Richmond under the command of Colonel Robert Tignall Jones (West Point Class of 1837). Moved to Manassas Junction and attached to Ewell’s Brigade, then was transferred to Rodes’s Division.|
|November 9||Captain John Canty Brown of Company D was promoted to major.|
|Winter||Wintered in camp at Manassas.|
|January||Attached to Rodes’ Brigade, Van Dorn’s Division, Potomac District|
|March 6||Major Brown resigned. Adjutant Samuel B. Pickens was promoted to major.|
Siege of Yorktown
Assigned to Rodes’ Brigade of D.H. Hill’s Division.
|May 4-5||Battle of Williamsburg|
Battle of Seven Pines
The 12th Alabama charged the redoubt held by Casey’s Division, overrunning three Union defensive lines. Colonel Jones, Captains Robert H. Keeling, C. A. Darwin and 70 other men were killed and Captain John Joseph Nicholson and 141 other men were wounded out of 408 engaged. Lieutenant Colonel Bristor B. Gayle took command when Colonel Jones fell.
After the battle Lieutenant Colonel Gayle was promoted to colonel, Major Pickens was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain John C. Goodgame of Company B was promoted to major.
Battle of Mechanicsville
Attached to Rodes’ Brigade, Hill’s Division, Jackson’s command
|June 27 – 28||
First Battle of Cold Harbor, or Gaines’ Mill
Battle of Malvern Hill
Only 120 men answered muster after the battle
Colonel Gayle was killed in the fighting at Turner’s Gap. Lieutenant Colonel Samuel B. Pickens took command and was shot through the lungs, but was brought away and recovered. Lieutenant Colonel Pickens was promoted to colonel.
The 12th Alabama fought in the Sunken Road, commanded by Captain Exton Tucker until he was killed. Captain William Maroney took command of the regiment.
Captain Daniel H. Garrison was killed and the colors were lost to the 57th New York Infantry. The regiment lost 27 killed, 69 wounded and 33 missing (includes Boonsboro).
|November||Assigned to Rodes’ Brigade, D.H. Hill’s Division, Second Corps|
Colonel Pickens was in command.
|January 15||Captain Maroney resigned.|
Colonel Pickens was wounded. Captains Henry W. Cox and Thomas W. Fitzgerald and 12 enlisted men were killed and Captains Adolph Proskauer and John W. McNeeley and 85 enlisted men were wounded of 330 engaged.
|May 7||Assigned to O’Neal’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, Second Corps|
|June 9||Battle of Brandy Station|
The regiment fought on Oak Ridge on July 1 and at Culp’s Hill on July 2 and 3. Captain James T. Davis and 16 enlisted men were killed and Captains Robert Emory Park and P. D. Rose and 64 enlisted men were wounded out of 24 officers and 293 men engaged.
From the brigade monument at Gettysburg:
July 1. Soon after arriving at this position three regiments attacked the Union flank, the 5th Regiment being ordered to guard the wide interval between the Brigade and Doles’s Brigade in the valley on the left and the 3rd Regiment joining Daniel’s and afterwards Ramseur’s Brigade. The three regiments were repulsed with heavy loss but the entire Brigade took part in the general attack soon made by the Confederates which finally dislodged the Union forces from Seminary Ridge.
July 2. The Brigade in position all day in or near the town but not engaged.
July 3. The 5th Regiment lay in the southern borders of the town firing upon the Union artillery with their long range rifles. The other regiments moved to Culp’s Hill to reinforce Johnson’s Division.
July 4. Moved to Seminary Ridge. At night began the march to Hagerstown.
|August 25||Assigned to Battle’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, Second Corps|
|October 10 -21||
The regiment lost 2 men killed
Commanded by Colonel Pickens. Captain J. McCassells was killed.
Colonel Pickens was again wounded. Captain John Rogers killed and Adolph Proskauer was again wounded.
|June 13||Transferred to the Shenandoah Valley and assigned to Battle’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, Army of the Valley.|
|June 17-18||Battle of Lynchburg|
|June 19-21||Pursuit of Hunter|
|June 26||At Stanton|
|June 30||At New Market|
|July 1||Marched through Winchester|
|Juy 5-6||Crossed the Potomac at Boteler’s Ford|
|July 9||Battle of Monocacy|
|July 11-12||Battle of Fort Stevens|
|July 24||Second Battle of Kernstown|
Captains John Rogers and A. Majors were killed.
Colonel Pickens was wounded for the fourth time, Captains Robert Park and Augustus Elzey Hewlett were wounded and captured
|September 20||Major General Ramseur took command of the division after General Rodes was killed.|
Captain P. D. Ross in command.
|October 20||With the death of General Ramseur, Brigadier General Bryan Grimes took command of the division.|
|mid-December||The division left the Shenandoah Valley and returned to the Richmond defences as part of the Second Corps.|
|February 23||Brigadier General Bryan Grimes was promoted to major general and given permanent command of the division.|
The 12th Alabama Infantry Regiment surrendered 5 officers and 62 men.