The 4th Texas Infantry Regiment was organized in Richmond in September of 1861 and fought until it was surrendered by Robert E. Lee at Appomattox in April of 1865. It mustered 1,343 men during the Civil War losing 256 men killed or mortally wounded, 486 men wounded in battle, and 161 men to disease.
The Texas regiments of the Army of Northern Virginia are honored by state monuments on the Manassas battlefield, Antietam battlefield, on the Gettysburg battlefield, and on the Wilderness battlefield.
|April||Organized at a camp of instruction on the San Marcos River in Hays County.|
|July||Twenty companies not yet organized as regiments sent to Virginia.|
|September 30||The regiment was organized at Richmond. Field officers were appointed by the Confederate War Department rather than elected, as in other Confederate regiments. Robert T.P. Allen (West Point Class of 1834) was appointed colonel of the regiment|
|October 2||Colonel Allen’s harsh discipline forced his resignation (he was literally driven from camp by the men) and he was replaced by Colonel John B. Hood. John F. Marshall, a Texan, became lieutenant colonel and Bradfute Warwick, a Virginian, was appointed as major. The regiment was assigned to Wigfall’s Texas Brigade.|
|February 20||Brigadier General Wigfall Resigned to take his place in the Senate. Colonel Hood took over the brigade as senior colonel.|
|March 3||Colonel Hood was promoted to brigadier general and took over permanent command of the brigade. Lieutenant Colonel Marshall was promoted to colonel, Major Warwick to lieutenant colonel and Captain John Cottlett Garrett Key of Company A was promoted to major.|
|April||The regiment mustered 470 men|
|May 7||Eltham’s Landing|
Battle of Gaines’ Mill
The Texas Brigade broke the Federal line at Turkey Hill, The regiment lost 21 men killed, 63 wounded and 1 captured out of 500 men engaged. Colonel Marshall and Lieutenant Colonel Warwick were killed, and Major Key and Captain John Bane were wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Warwick was posthumously promoted to colonel, Major Key was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Benjamin F. Carter of Company B was promoted to major.
|July 10||Lieutenant Colonel Key was promoted to colonel, Major Carter to lieutenant colonel and Captain William P. Townsend of Company C to major.|
|July 26||Brigadier General Whiting went on sick leave, and Brigadier General Hood took over the division as senior brigade commander. The division was assigned to Longstreet’s command.|
Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel B.F. Carter, the regiment participated in Longstreet’s attack on the second day of the battle, capturing a Federal battery. It lost 11 men killed and 20 wounded. Major Townsend was wounded, losing his foot.
The regiment lost 6 men killed and and 2 wounded. The regiment was commanded by Colonel Key, but after the battle he was forced to turn command over to Lt. Colonel Carter due to illness.
The regiment fought north of the Dunker Church in Miller’s Cornfield in some of the most intense fighting of the war, losing 57 men killed, 130 wounded and 23 captured. It was the regiment’s largest loss during the Civil War. Captain R.H. Franks and Lieutenants Lemual P. Hughes, Henry M. Marchant, Andrew J. McKean, Nat J. Mills and John Roach were wounded.
September 16, 1862.
On the approach of the First Army Corps on the evening of the 16th, Wofford’s Brigade advanced and formed line in the south edge of the Cornfield, its left on the Hagerstown Pike. The 4th Texas, deployed as skirmishers, encountered the advance of Seymour’s Brigade and was forced back but, reenforced by the 5th Texas on its right, held the East Woods until darkness put an end to the engagement. At 10 P. M. the Brigade was relieved by Lawton’s Brigade and withdrew to the woods west of Dunkard Church.
From the second brigade marker:
September 17, 1862.
At 7 A.M., Wofford’s Brigade, advancing from the woods in rear of the Dunkard Church, crossed the Hagerstown Pike near the church and, moving north, its left (Hampton Legion) resting on the Pike, relieved Lawton’s and Hays’ Brigades of Ewell’s Division, about 145 to 160 yards south of this and engaged the Union line in the cornfield about 75 yards north of this road. The 5th Texas was sent to the assistance of Law’s Brigade on the right. The four remaining Regiments maintained a contest rarely equalled in warfare. They penetrated the cornfield, the 1st Texas advancing to its northern edge, but their advance was checked. After losing more than one half its numbers, the Brigade fell back to the fields southwest of the Dunkard Church, and was not again engaged. The Brigade went into action numbering 854; its loss in killed, wounded and missing was 560. The 1st Texas carried into action 226 officers and men, of whom 186 were killed or wounded.
|October 10||Brigadier General Hood was promoted to major general and given permanent command of the division.|
|November 7||Brigadier General Jerome Robertson was given command of the brigade when Colonel Wofford and his 18th Georgia were transferred to an all-Georgia brigade.|
The regiment was not heavily engaged.
|December 29||Captain John P. Bane of Company D was promoted to major|
|April – May||
The regiment was detached with the rest of Hood’s Division for the campaign around Suffolk, Virginia, missing the Battle of Chancellorsville.
The regiment brought 415 men to the field under Colonel Key. It took park in the attack on the Union flank and the fighting for Little Round Top on July 2nd. Colonel Key was badly wounded and Lieutenant Colonel Carter mortally wounded and captured. Major John P. Bane took command of the regiment.
The regiment lost 25 other men killed, 57 wounded and 58 captured. Lieutenant Joseph C. Smith was killed and Captain Decimus Barziza was wounded and captured.
From the monument to Robertson’s Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:
July 2. Arrived after a march of several miles and formed line 50 yards west of this at 4 P. M. Advanced against the Union positions. The 4th and 5th Texas joined in the attack on Little Round Top which continued until dark. The 1st and 3d Arkansas attacked and assisted in taking Devil’s Den and Rocky Ridge with a number of prisoners and 3 guns of the 4th New York Battery.
July 3. At 2 A. M. the 1st Texas and 3d Arkansas were moved to the right and joined the 4th and 5th Texas on the northwest spur of Big Round Top. Three regiments occupied the breastworks there all day skirmishing hotly with Union sharpshooters. Early in the day the 1st Texas was sent to confront the Union Cavalry threatening the right flank. After night the Brigade took position near here.
July 5. About 5 A. M. began the march to Hagerstown Md.
Present about 1100 Losses about 540
From the State of Texas monument at Gettysburg:
From near this spot the Texas Brigade at about 4:30 p.m. on July 2 crossed Emmitsburg Road and advanced with Hood’s Division across Plum Run toward Little Round Top. The Texas Brigade after severe fighting on the slopes of Little Round Top retired to a position on the south side of Devil’s Den. The Brigade held this position the night of July 2 and during the day on July 3 then fell back to a position near this memorial on the evening of July 3. On the field at Gettysburg the Texas Brigade suffered 597 casualties.
|July 21||Lieutenant Colonel Carter died of his wounds near Chambersburg. Major Bane was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Clinton M. Winkler of Company I was promoted to major.|
|September 10||The Texas Brigade transferred with Hood’s and McLaw’s Divisions to the Army of the Tennessee|
Battle of Chickamauga
Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Bane, the regiment was in the attack that broke the Federal line on the second day of the battle. The regiment lost 34 men killed, 40 wounded and 3 captured. Lt. Colonel Bane was wounded.
|Fall||Colonel Key briefly returned to the regiment but the effects of his wounds proved to be too much for him to continue in command, and Lt. Colonel Bane resumed command. Colonel Key would die in 1866.|
Battle of Wauhatchie
The regiment was forced to retreat for the only time during the war.
|April||The regiment returned to Virginia with the rest of Longstreet’s men.|
|April 29||Colonel Key resigned due to his wounds from Gaines’ Mill and Gettysburg. Lieutenant Colonel Bane was promoted to colonel, Major Winkler to lieutenant colonel and Captain William H. Martin of Company K was promoted to major.|
The regiment took part in the “Lee to the Rear” incident before charging with the Texas Brigade to plug a gap in the Confederate line. It lost 26 men killed, 95 wounded and 3 captured out of 207 men engaged.
From the front of the Texas monument on The Wilderness battlefield:
Of approximately 800 troops involved the Texas Brigade counted over 500 casualties.
From the reverse of the monument:
“Who are you my boys?” Lee cried as he saw them gathering.
“Texas boys,” they yelled, their number multiplying every second.
The Texans – Hood’s Texans, of Longstreet’s Corps, just at the right place and at the right moment! After the strain of the dawn, the sight of these grenadier guards of the South was too much for Lee. For once the dignity of the Commanding General was shattered for once his poise was shaken.
“Hurrah for Texas,” he shouted, waving his hat, “Hurrah for Texas.”
The willing veterans sprang into position…He would lead them in the countercharge…He spurred… Traveler
“Go back, General Lee. Go back!” They cried …”we won’t go on unless you go back!”
– Douglas Southall Freeman
|Summer||Colonel Bane returned to Texas to recruit and to recover from his Chickamauga wound. He never returned to the regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Winkler took command.|
Battle of Darbytown Road
The regiment suffered heavy casualties charging Union troops armed with repeating carbines. Lieutenant Colonel Winkler took command of the brigade after Brigadier General Gregg was killed and Colonel Bass of the 1st Texas was wounded.
|Fall & Winter|
The regiment surrendered 15 officers and 145 enlisted men.