Confederate Regiments & Batteries * Texas

The Texas regiments of the Army of Northern Virginia are honored by monuments on the Manassas battlefieldAntietam battlefield, on the Gettysburg battlefield, and on the Wilderness battlefield.

October Organized in Richmond under Colonel James Jay Archer, Lt. Colonel Jerome B. Robertson, and Major Paul J. Quattlebaum (West Point Class of 1857).
November 1 Major Quattlebaum resigned to become Brigade AAG. Captain Walter B. Botts of Company A was promoted to major.
February Colonel Archer took temporary command of the Texas Brigade after General Wigfall resigned to take his seat in the Senate. Colonel John B. Hood of the 4th Texas was promoted to Brigadier General and took permanent command of the brigade on the 20th.
April The regiment mustered 341 men
May 7 Battle of Eltham’s Landing
May 31
Battle of Seven Pines

Major Botts was wounded

June 3 Colonel Archer was promoted to brigadier general. Lieutenant Colonel Jerome B. Robertson was promoted to colonel, Major Botts promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain John C. Upton of Company B was promoted to major.
July 11 Lieutenant Colonel Botts entered the hospital
July 17 Lieutenant Colonel Botts resigned due to his wound from Seven Pines. Major Upton was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain David M. Whaley of Company C was promoted to major
July 26 Brigadier General Whiting went on sick leave, and Brigadier General Hood took over the division as senior brigade commander. The division was assigned to Longstreet’s command.
August 22
Skirmish at Freeman’s Ford

Major Whaley and an enlisted man were killed and four enlisted men were wounded. Captain Robert M. Powell of Company D promoted to major

Agust 30
Second Battle of Manassas

The 5th Texas took part in Longstreet’s attack on Pope’s flank, crossing Young’s Branch and overrunning the 5th New York. Lieutenant Colonel Upton was killed, struck above the eye after he picked up the flag when the color bearer was shot down. After the battle Major Powell was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain King Bryan of Company F to major.

September 14
South Mountain

Colonel Robertson collapsed from exhaustion and had to be carried off the battlefield.

September 17
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The regiment, under the command of Captain Ike Turner, fought north of the Dunker Church in Miller’s Cornfield in some of the most intense fighting of the war. The regiment lost 5 men killed, 3 mortally wounded, and 78 wounded, 18 of whom had to be left behind on the battlefield or in the field hospital to be captured when Lee’s army retreated.

Lieutenants Henry W. Boyd, James P. Drake, B. Pugh Fuller and Mack Strickland were mortally wounded. Captains Thomas A. Baber and James D. Roberdeau and Lieutenants Edward Collier, Joseph New, Walter S. Norwood, John Smith and S.S. Stanley were wounded. Lieutenant J.M. Alexander was wounded and captured.

From the first of two markers to the brigade on the Antietam battlefield:

September 16, 1862.

On the approach of the First Army Corps on the evening of the 16th, Wofford’s Brigade advanced and formed line in the south edge of the Cornfield, its left on the Hagerstown Pike. The 4th Texas, deployed as skirmishers, encountered the advance of Seymour’s Brigade and was forced back but, reinforced by the 5th Texas on its right, held the East Woods until darkness put an end to the engagement. At 10 P. M. the Brigade was relieved by Lawton’s Brigade and withdrew to the woods west of Dunkard Church.

From the second brigade marker:

September 17, 1862.

At 7 A.M., Wofford’s Brigade, advancing from the woods in rear of the Dunkard Church, crossed the Hagerstown Pike near the church and, moving north, its left (Hampton Legion) resting on the Pike, relieved Lawton’s and Hays’ Brigades of Ewell’s Division, about 145 to 160 yards south of this and engaged the Union line in the cornfield about 75 yards north of this road. The 5th Texas was sent to the assistance of Law’s Brigade on the right. The four remaining Regiments maintained a contest rarely equalled in warfare. They penetrated the cornfield, the 1st Texas advancing to its northern edge, but their advance was checked. After losing more than one half its numbers, the Brigade fell back to the fields southwest of the Dunkard Church, and was not again engaged. The Brigade went into action numbering 854; its loss in killed, wounded and missing was 560. The 1st Texas carried into action 226 officers and men, of whom 186 were killed or wounded.

October 10 Brigadier General Hood was promoted to major general and given permanent command of the division.
November 1 Colonel Robertson was promoted to brigadier general and given command of the brigade. Lieutenant Colonel Powell was promoted to colonel, Major Bryan to lieutenant colonel, and Captain Jefferson C. Rogers of Company G to major
December 13
Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment was not heavily engaged.

April – May
Suffolk Campaign

The regiment was detached with the rest of Hood’s Division for the campaign around Suffolk, Virginia, missing the Battle of Chancellorsville. Captain Isaac Turner was killed by a sharpshooter while standing on the breastworks he commanded defending the entrance to the Nansemond River.

July 2 & 3
Battle of Gettysburg

The 5th Texas brought 409 men to Gettysburg. It lost 54 killed, 112 wounded, and 45 missing or captured. Colonel Powell was wounded on July 2nd at the summit of Little Round Top and later captured. Lieutenant Colonel Bryan was wounded almost immediately after, leaving Major Jefferson C. Rogers in command. Lieutenant Harper was wounded, and Lieutenant James E. Cobb was wounded and captured.

From the monument to Robertson’s Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:

July 2. Arrived after a march of several miles and formed line 50 yards west of this at 4 P. M. Advanced against the Union positions. The 4th and 5th Texas joined in the attack on Little Round Top which continued until dark. The 1st and 3d Arkansas attacked and assisted in taking Devil’s Den and Rocky Ridge with a number of prisoners and 3 guns of the 4th New York Battery.
July 3. At 2 A. M. the 1st Texas and 3d Arkansas were moved to the right and joined the 4th and 5th Texas on the northwest spur of Big Round Top. Three regiments occupied the breastworks there all day skirmishing hotly with Union sharpshooters. Early in the day the 1st Texas was sent to confront the Union Cavalry threatening the right flank. After night the Brigade took position near here.
July 5. About 5 A. M. began the march to Hagerstown Md.

Present about 1100 Losses about 540

From the State of Texas monument at Gettysburg:

From near this spot the Texas Brigade at about 4:30 p.m. on July 2 crossed Emmitsburg Road and advanced with Hood’s Division across Plum Run toward Little Round Top. The Texas Brigade after severe fighting on the slopes of Little Round Top retired to a position on the south side of Devil’s Den. The Brigade held this position the night of July 2 and during the day on July 3 then fell back to a position near this memorial on the evening of July 3. On the field at Gettysburg the Texas Brigade suffered 597 casualties.

September 10 The Texas Brigade transferred with Hood’s and McLaw’s Divisions to the Army of the Tennessee
September 19-20
Battle of Chickamauga

Major Rogers was wounded by shrapnel, losing his left eye, and disabled from further command.

October 25 Major Rogers retired due this wound.
April The regiment returned to Virginia with the rest of Longstreet’s corps.
May 7
Battle of the Wilderness

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bryan. It took part in the “Lee to the Rear” incident before charging with the Texas Brigade to plug a gap in the Confederate line. Lt. Colonel Bryan was wounded in both arms and was disabled from future command.

From the front of the Texas monument on The Wilderness battlefield:

Of approximately 800 troops involved the Texas Brigade counted over 500 casualties.

From the reverse of the monument:

“Who are you my boys?” Lee cried as he saw them gathering.

“Texas boys,” they yelled, their number multiplying every second.

The Texans – Hood’s Texans, of Longstreet’s Corps, just at the right place and at the right moment! After the strain of the dawn, the sight of these grenadier guards of the South was too much for Lee. For once the dignity of the Commanding General was shattered for once his poise was shaken.

“Hurrah for Texas,” he shouted, waving his hat, “Hurrah for Texas.”

The willing veterans sprang into position…He would lead them in the countercharge…He spurred… Traveler
…on the heels of the infantry men.

“Go back, General Lee. Go back!” They cried …”we won’t go on unless you go back!”

– Douglas Southall Freeman

May 8-21
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
June 3
Battle of Cold Harbor
October 7
Battle of Darbytown Road

The regiment suffered heavy casualties charging Union troops armed with repeating carbines.

Fall & Winter
Siege of Petersburg
February 6 Colonel Powell was paroled after spending 19 months in Northern prisons.
March Colonel Powell took command of the Texas Brigade – its final commander.
April 9
Appomattox Court House

The regiment surrendered 12 officers and 149 enlisted men at Appomattox, the largest unit of the Texas Brigade