The 4th Texas Infantry Regiment was organized in Richmond in September of 1861 and fought until it was surrendered at Appomattox in April of 1865. It mustered a total of 1,343 men during the Civil War, losing 256 men killed or mortally wounded, 486 men wounded in battle, and 161 men died of disease. 251 men were discharged to sickness and wounds and 51 deserted.
The Texas regiments of the Army of Northern Virginia are honored by state monuments on the Manassas battlefield, the Antietam battlefield, the Gettysburg battlefield, and on the Wilderness battlefield.
|April||Organized at a camp of instruction on the San Marcos River in Hays County.|
|July||Twenty companies that were not yet organized as regiments were moved to a camp near Harrison and then on to Virginia.|
|September 30||The regiment was organized at Richmond. Ten companies were mustered into Confederate service. Field officers were appointed by the Confederate War Department rather than elected as in other Confederate regiments. Robert T.P. Allen (West Point Class of 1834) was appointed colonel of the regiment
Company A – “Hardeman Rifles” – Goliad County – Captain John C.G. Key
|October 2||Colonel Allen’s harsh discipline forced his resignation (he was literally driven from camp by the men) and he was replaced by Colonel John B. Hood (West Point Class of 1853). John F. Marshall, a Texan, became lieutenant colonel and Bradfute Warwick, a Virginian, was appointed as major. The regiment was assigned to Wigfall’s Texas Brigade.|
|October||Regimental Chaplain Nicholas A. Davis reported that more than 400 of the regiment’s 1,187 men were sick.|
|November||The 4th Texas was assigned to the Texas Brigade, Forces near Dumfries (Whiting’s Command), 2nd Corps, Potomac District, Department of Northern Virginia. It manned the Potomac defense line based from Camp Texas.|
|February 20||Brigadier General Wigfall Resigned to take his place in the Senate. Colonel Hood took over the brigade as senior colonel.|
|March 3||Colonel Hood was promoted to brigadier general and took over permanent command of the brigade. Lieutenant Colonel John F. Marshall was promoted to colonel, Major Bradfute Warwick to lieutenant colonel and Captain John Cottlett Garrett Key of Company A was promoted to major. Lieutenant Stephen H. Darden was elected captain of Company A.|
|March 8||Assigned to the Texas Brigade, Whiting’s Division, Army of Northern Virginia. Marched south to the Rappahannock River.|
|March 12||The regiment took up defensive positions behind the Rappahannock River.|
|April||The regiment mustered 470 men|
|April 7||Began the march to Yorktown on the Peninsula.|
|April 15||Moved into positions on the Peninsula in the Yorktown-Warwick defense line.|
|May 4||Withdrew toward Richmond by way of Williamsburg. The regiment acted as rear guard for the army and was the last regiment to evacuate Yorktown.|
Hood’s Brigade pushed back a Union skirmish line but withdrew under fire from covering gunboats. Afterwards they resumed the rear guard in the retreat to Richmond.
|May 12||Crossed the flooding Chickahominy and went into bivouac.|
|May 15||The regiment was relieved from fron lined duty and moved to Pine Island, three miles northeast of Richmond.|
|May 31-June 1||
Battle of Seven Pines
The regiment was in reserve and not engaged in the battle.
|June||Assigned to Hood’s Texas Brigade, Whitings Division, Army of Northern Virginia|
|June 12-18||Moved by rail from Richmond to Staunton to temporarily reinforce Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley.|
|June 20||Moved via Charlottesville to Gordonsville then to Frederick Hall.|
|June 23||Marched from Frederick Hall to Ashland.|
|June 25||Arrived at Ashland.|
|June – July||Assigned to Hood’s Texas Brigade, Whitings Division, Jackson’s Command, Army of Northern Virginia|
|June 26||Skirmish near Totopotomy Creek|
Battle of Gaines’ Mill
The Texas Brigade broke the Federal line at Turkey Hill in an attack that began in the late afternoon. The regiment lost 21 men killed, 63 wounded and 1 captured out of 500 men engaged.
Colonel John F. Marshall was killed, shot in the head after he refused to dismount while leading the charge like other officers. Lieutenant Colonel Bradfute Warwick was also killed. Major John Key and Captain John Bane were wounded.
After the battle Lieutenant Colonel Warwick was posthumously promoted to colonel, Major Key was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Benjamin F. Carter of Company B was promoted to major.
Battle of Malvern Hill
Lieutenant Colonel John Key was wounded.
|July 10||Lieutenant Colonel John Key was promoted to colonel, Major Benjamin Carter to lieutenant colonel and Captain William P. Townsend of Company C to major.|
|July 13||Assigned to Hood’s Texas Brigade, Whitings Division, Longstreet’s Command, Army of Northern Virginia|
|July 26||Brigadier General Whiting went on sick leave, and Brigadier General Hood took over the division as senior brigade commander. The division was assigned to Longstreet’s command.|
|August 11||Marched toward the Rapidan River near Orange Court House.|
|August 15||Arrived at Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan River.|
|August 20||Crossed the Rapidan in pusuit of Pope’s Federals.|
Skirmish at Freeman’s Ford
|August 24||Received orders to march while preparing their meal.|
|August 25||Bivouacked near Waterloo Bridge.|
|August 26||Marched 30 miles to Thorofare Gap.|
|August 28||Battle of Thorofare Gap|
Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin F. Carter, the regiment participated in Longstreet’s attack on the second day of the battle, capturing a Federal battery. It lost 11 men killed and 20 wounded. Major Townsend was wounded, losing his foot.
|August 31||The men rested, cared for the wounded and buried the dead.|
|September 1||Marched north to the Potomac River.|
|September 5||Crossed the Potomac River at White’s Ford.|
|September 6||Marched through Buckeytown, Maryland and camped along the Monocacy River near the railroad bridge.|
|September 9||Marched west through Frederick.|
|September 12||Marched over South Mountain to Boonsboro.|
|September 13||Marched through Hagerstown to near the Pennsylvania border.|
Was ordered to return to South Mountain, where Federal troops were attacking the Confederate rear guard. The regiment lost 6 men killed and and 2 wounded. The regiment was commanded by Colonel John Key, but after the battle he was forced to turn command over to Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Carter due to illness.
|September 15||Marched to join Lee along the banks of Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg.|
|September 16||Skirmished in the evening with Federal forces moving into position for their morning attack.|
The regiment fought north of the Dunker Church in Miller’s Cornfield in some of the most intense fighting of the war, losing 57 men killed, 130 wounded and 23 captured. It was the regiment’s largest loss during the Civil War.
Lieutenant John Roach of Company G was mortally wounded. Captain (Acting Major) Edward Hall Cunningham of Company F was wounded, losing his arm. Captain R.H. Franks and Lieutenants Lemual P. Hughes, Henry M. Marchant, James T. McLaurin of Company B, Andrew J. McKean, and Natthaniel J. Mills of Company I were wounded. Lieutenant Lemual P. Hughes of Company F was wounded, losing his arm, and captured.
September 16, 1862.
On the approach of the First Army Corps on the evening of the 16th, Wofford’s Brigade advanced and formed line in the south edge of the Cornfield, its left on the Hagerstown Pike. The 4th Texas, deployed as skirmishers, encountered the advance of Seymour’s Brigade and was forced back but, reenforced by the 5th Texas on its right, held the East Woods until darkness put an end to the engagement. At 10 P. M. the Brigade was relieved by Lawton’s Brigade and withdrew to the woods west of Dunkard Church.
From the second brigade marker:
September 17, 1862.
At 7 A.M., Wofford’s Brigade, advancing from the woods in rear of the Dunkard Church, crossed the Hagerstown Pike near the church and, moving north, its left (Hampton Legion) resting on the Pike, relieved Lawton’s and Hays’ Brigades of Ewell’s Division, about 145 to 160 yards south of this and engaged the Union line in the cornfield about 75 yards north of this road. The 5th Texas was sent to the assistance of Law’s Brigade on the right. The four remaining Regiments maintained a contest rarely equalled in warfare. They penetrated the cornfield, the 1st Texas advancing to its northern edge, but their advance was checked. After losing more than one half its numbers, the Brigade fell back to the fields southwest of the Dunkard Church, and was not again engaged. The Brigade went into action numbering 854; its loss in killed, wounded and missing was 560. The 1st Texas carried into action 226 officers and men, of whom 186 were killed or wounded.
|September 18||Remained in line of battle throughout the day. During the night marched south to the Potomac and crossed the river at Shepherdstown Ford.|
|September 19||Marched to Bunker Hill, about 20 miles north of Winchester, and camped along the banks of Opequon Creek.|
|October 1||Captain Stephen Darden of Company A resigned to serve as colonel of a home guard regiment on the Texas coast.|
|October 2||Lieutenant Edmund Duggan resigned due to chronic dysentery.|
|October 10||Brigadier General Hood was promoted to major general and given permanent command of the division.|
|October 26||Marched south along the Valley Pike through Winchester to Newtown.|
|November 1||Captain Edward H. Cunningham resigned due to his Sharpsburg wound, but was promoted to major on General Hood’s staff.|
|November 2||Marched east from Newtown over New Market Gap and Manassas Gap.|
|November 5||Reached Culpeper Court House and went into camp outside the town.|
|November 7||Brigadier General Jerome Robertson was given command of the brigade when Colonel Wofford and his 18th Georgia were transferred to an all-Georgia brigade.|
|November 8||Lieutenant Lemuel Hughes was paroled and promoted to captain of Company F.|
|November 19||Moved to the south bank of the Rapidan.|
|November 20-21||Marched 16 miles to near Sporsylvania Court House and camped.|
|November 22||Marched to Fredericksburg and camped a mile and a half east of town on the south bank of the Rappahannock River.|
The regiment was not heavily engaged.
|December||The regiment went into winter quarters.|
|December 29||Captain John P. Bane of Company D was promoted to major|
|January 29||Took part in the “Great Snowball Battle”|
|February 3||Captain Lemuel Hughes of Company F resigned due to his Sharpsburg wound.|
|February||Assigned to Texas Brigade, Hood’s Division, Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia|
|February 16||Left the winter camp outside Fredericksburg and marched for Richmond.|
|February 22||Marched through Richmond and continued four miles south to Falling Creek, where it camped near the railroad.|
|March 18||Made a forced march through Richmond to Ashland.|
|March 20||Marched back to the camp on Falling Creek.|
|April 2||Left the camp on Falling Creek and marched to Petersburg.|
|April 8||Marched to Suffolk, Virginia.|
|April 11-May 4||
The regiment with the rest of Hood’s Division was attached to the Department of Southern Virginia for the campaign around Suffolk, Virginia.
|May 2||Ordered to rejoin Lee’s main army at Chancellorsville and began movement to Petersburg, but missed the Battle of Chancellorsville.|
|May 5||Reached Ivor Station on the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad.|
|May||Hood’s Division was reattached to the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia.|
|May 13||Went into camp near Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan River|
|May 27||Major General Hood held a formal review of the division.|
|May 31||Broke camp and marched 14 miles toward Fredericksburg.|
|June 1||Marched back to the camp at Raccoon Ford.|
|June 4||Crossed the Rapidan and marched 15 miles toward Culpeper.|
|June 6||Continued the march in a heavy downpour toward the Rappahannock.|
|June 7||Returned to Culpeper and camped five miles west near Cedar Mountain.|
|June 15||March north along the foot of the Blue Ridge toward Ashby’s Gap.|
|June 17||Marched 14 miles towards Upperville.|
|June 18||Crossed the Blue Ridge via Ashby’s Gap, forded the Shenandoah River and camped near Millwood.|
|June 19||Marched to Berryville, recrossed the Shenandoah River and took position near Snickers Gap.|
|June 23||Returned to Millwood.|
|June 26||Marched north and crossed the Potomac at Williamsport.|
|June 27||Marched into Pennsylvania, through Greencastle and Chambersburg, camping north of town.|
|June 29||Marched east on the Cashtown Road, camping near Fayetteville.|
The regiment brought 415 men to the field under Colonel John C.G. Key. It took park in the attack on the Union flank and the fighting for Little Round Top on July 2nd. Colonel Key was badly wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Carter took command until he was mortally wounded and captured. Major John P. Bane took command of the regiment.
The regiment lost 25 men killed, 57 wounded and 58 captured. Lieutenant Joseph C. Smith was killed and Captain Decimus Barziza was wounded and captured. Captain Clinton M. Winkler and Lieutenant Middleton L. Livingston of Company C were wounded.
From the monument to Robertson’s Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:
July 2. Arrived after a march of several miles and formed line 50 yards west of this at 4 P. M. Advanced against the Union positions. The 4th and 5th Texas joined in the attack on Little Round Top which continued until dark. The 1st and 3d Arkansas attacked and assisted in taking Devil’s Den and Rocky Ridge with a number of prisoners and 3 guns of the 4th New York Battery.
July 3. At 2 A. M. the 1st Texas and 3d Arkansas were moved to the right and joined the 4th and 5th Texas on the northwest spur of Big Round Top. Three regiments occupied the breastworks there all day skirmishing hotly with Union sharpshooters. Early in the day the 1st Texas was sent to confront the Union Cavalry threatening the right flank. After night the Brigade took position near here.
July 5. About 5 A. M. began the march to Hagerstown Md.
Present about 1100 Losses about 540
From the State of Texas monument at Gettysburg:
From near this spot the Texas Brigade at about 4:30 p.m. on July 2 crossed Emmitsburg Road and advanced with Hood’s Division across Plum Run toward Little Round Top. The Texas Brigade after severe fighting on the slopes of Little Round Top retired to a position on the south side of Devil’s Den. The Brigade held this position the night of July 2 and during the day on July 3 then fell back to a position near this memorial on the evening of July 3. On the field at Gettysburg the Texas Brigade suffered 597 casualties.
|July 4||Remained in position in line of battle.|
|July 5||Began the march to Virginia in the early morning via Fairfield and Monterey Pass.|
|July 7||Arrived at Hagerstown and went into defensive positions, as the Potomac was in flood and unable to be crossed.|
|July 14||Crossed the Potomac near Williamsport.|
|July 16||Bivouaced at Bunker Hill, 10 miles north of Winchester on the Valley Pike.|
|July 20||Passed through Chester Gap.|
|July 21||Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Carter died of his wounds near Chambersburg. Major John Bane was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Clinton M. Winkler of Company I was promoted to major.|
|July 24||Reached Culpeper Court House and went into camp.|
|August 1||Moved southeast along the Rapidan.|
|August 3||At Raccoon Ford.|
|August 4||Moved along the south bank of the Rapidan and Rappahannock to Fredericksburg.|
|August 6||Went into Camp near Fredericksburg.|
|September||Marched along the south bank of the Rappahannock to Port Royal.|
|September 8||Marched to Bowling Green and entrained for Richmond.|
|September 9||Moved by rail south from Richmond.|
|September 10||The Texas Brigade was attached with Hood’s and McLaw’s Divisions to the Army of the Tennessee.|
|September 17||Arrived in Georgia at Catoosa Station and marched to Ringgold.|
|September 18||Marched to Chickamauga Creek.|
Battle of Chickamauga
Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Bane, the regiment was in the attack that broke the Federal line on the second day of the battle. The regiment lost 34 men killed, 40 wounded and 3 captured.
Lieutenant Colonel Bane was wounded. Lieutenant Middleton L. Livingston of Company C was wounded. Lieutenant Allen Killingsworth was promoted to captain of Company E on September 20, then killed the following day.
|September 22 – November 4||
Siege of Chattanooga
|Fall||Colonel John Key briefly returned to the regiment but the effects of his wounds proved to be too much for him to continue in command, and Lieutenant Colonel John Bane resumed command.|
Battle of Wauhatchie
Left behind after dark when other units were ordered to retreat and they were not notified, then attacked from several directions, the regiment was routed for the only time during the war.
|November 5||Marched from the Chattanoga area north and east toward Tyner’s Station.|
|November 8||Marched north to Cleveland|
|November 9||Moved by train to Sweetwater.|
|November 12||Detrained and acted as rear guard.|
|November 16||Marched to Louden|
|November 17 – December 4||
Siege of Knoxville
Assigned to the Department of East Tennessee.
|November 19||Crossed the Tennessee River and marched to Knoxville|
|November 20||Recrossed the Tennessee River and took position facing Federal Fort Higley while Humphrey’s, Btyan’s and Wofford’s brigades unsuccessfully attacked Fort Sanders.|
|November 29||Skirmish at Fort Higley.|
|December 8||At Rogersville.|
|December 9||Skirmish at Bean’s Station|
|December 10||Camped at Bean’s Sttaion.|
|December 19||Marched south, crossing the Holston River.|
|December 22||Crossed the Rapidan and marched 15 miles toward Culpeper.|
|February 10||Left winter camp and marhed west toward Chesterfield.|
|February 15||Camped near Chesterfield.|
|February 22||Marched east toward Bull’s Gap|
|February 26||Went into winter quarters at Bull’s Gap|
|March 28||Broke winter camp and marched for Greenville.|
|March 29||Moved to Zollicoffer (now Bluff City) Tennessee.|
|April 1||Went into camp at Zollicoffer.|
|April 11||The regiment returned to Virginia with the rest of Longstreet’s command. Marched to Bristol.|
|April 15-18||Moved by train to Lynchburg|
|April 18||Camped at Lynchburg|
|April 20||Moved by train to Charlottesville.|
|April 23||Detrained at Charlottesville and marched to Cobham Station, where the regiment camped.|
|April 28||Review of the division by Brigadier General Field.|
Review of the First Corps by General Lee.
Colonel John Key resigned to the Invalid Corps due to his wounds from Gaines’ Mill and Gettysburg. He would die in 1866. Lieutenant Colonel John Bane was promoted to colonel, Major Winkler to lieutenant colonel and Captain William H. Martin of Company K was promoted to major.
|April 30||Marched through Gordonsville and bivouacked north of the town.|
|May 4||March east on Catharpin Road toward the Wilderness.|
The regiment arrived on the battlefield early in the morning and took part in the “Lee to the Rear” incident before charging with the Texas Brigade to plug a gap in the Confederate line. It lost 26 men killed, 95 wounded and 3 captured out of 207 men engaged.
Lieutenant John P. Grizzle of Company C was wounded.
From the front of the Texas monument on The Wilderness battlefield:
Of approximately 800 troops involved the Texas Brigade counted over 500 casualties.
From the reverse of the monument:
“Who are you my boys?” Lee cried as he saw them gathering.
– Douglas Southall Freeman
The 4th Texas buried their dead during the day, then began a night march to Spotsylvania Court House.
Marched towards the North Anna River
Battle of North Anna
Marched towards Ashland Station
Moved to near Gains Mill and entrenched.
Marched south, crossed the Chickahominy, to nesr Frayser’s Farm.
Marched south, crossing the James River by pontoon bridge near Drewry’s Bluff.
Moved into the defensive lines at Bermuda Hundred.
|June 18 – July 29|
Lieutenant John P. Grizzle of Company C was mortally wounded and captured. Lieutenant Middleton L. Livingston of Company C was promoted to captain.
|July 28||Marched to Dunlap’s Station|
|July 29||Moved to Richmond by train and took position on New Market Heights.|
|July 29-April 3||
Siege of Richmond
Colonel John P. Bane returned to Texas to recruit and to recover from his Chickamauga wound. He never returned to the regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Clinton M. Winkler took command of the regiment.
|August 16||Skirmish at White Oak Swamp|
|September 28||Mrs. Winkler hosts a soiree at the Chafin’s Bliff camp.|
Battle of Chaffin’s Farm
Battle of Darbytown Road
The regiment suffered heavy casualties charging Union troops armed with repeating carbines. Lieutenant Colonel Clinton Winkler took command of the brigade after Brigadier General Gregg was killed and Colonel Bass of the 1st Texas was wounded.
|October||Went into winter camp on Charles City Road 8 miles east of Richmond.|
|January 20||Skirmish on New Market Road|
|April 2||Broke camp and marched to Richmond to board a train to Petersburg.|
|April 3||Evacuated Petersburg, serving as rear guard for the army.|
|April 4||At Amelia Court House|
|April 5-6||Skirmish at Rice’s Station|
|April 8||Halted 2 miles east of Appomattox Court House.|
The regiment surrendered 15 officers and 143 enlisted men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Clinton M. Winkler.