The 5th New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry Regiment lost 18 officers and 277 enlisted men killed or mortally wounded and 2 officers and 176 enlisted men to disease. This is the greatest loss sustained in battle of any regiment of infantry or cavalry in the Union Army during the Civil War. The regiment is honored by a monument at Gettysburg.

1861
 August Organized at Concord, N. H. under Colonel Edward E. Cross
October 28 Mustered in
October 29 Left the state for Washington, D.C. with 1,200 men. Went into camp at Bladensburg, Defenses of Washington, D.C., attached to Howard’s Brigade, Sumner’s Division, Army of the Potomac
November 3-11 Expedition to Lower Maryland
November 27 At Camp California, near Alexandria, Va.
1862
January 17 Scout to Burke’s Station (Company A)
March 10-15 Advance on Manassas, Va. attached to 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac
March 20 Reconnaissance to Gainesville
March 28-29 To Rappahannock Station
March 28 Warrenton Junction
April 4 Moved to the Virginia Peninsula
April 5-May 4 Siege of Yorktown, Va.
May 28-30 Temporarily attached to Woodbury’s Engineer Brigade to construct Grapevine Bridge over Chickahominy
May 31-June 1
Battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines

The regiment lost 30 men killed and 170 wounded. Colonel Cross was hit in the thigh by a minnie ball and in the left side of the face by three buckshot. Captain Richard E. Cross was shot in his left leg and right hand.

June 25-July 1 Seven days before Richmond
June 28 Orchard Station
June 29 Peach Orchard, Allen’s Farm and Savage Station
June 30 White Oak Swamp and Glendale
July 1
Malvern Hill

Lieutenant Welcome A. Crafts was captured.

July-August At Harrison’s Landing
August 16-30 Movement to Fortress Monroe, then to Alexandria and to Centreville, Va. to cover Pope’s retreat from Bull Run
September-October Maryland Campaign
September 14 Battle of South Mountain (In Reserve)
September 15 Antietam Creek, near Keadysville
September 16-17
Battle of Antietam

The 5th New Hampshire went into battle with 319 men and lost 7 men killed and 120 wounded, including Colonel Cross. During the fighting at the sunken road Colonel Cross, conspicuous with the red bandanna on his bare head that became his battle trademark, had roared for the regiment to “put on the war paint!” while streaking his face with cartridge powder. He then called for them to “Give ’em the war whoop!”

From the brigade monument at Antietam:

Caldwell’s Brigade relieved Meagher’s and became heavily engaged with the Confederate Infantry occupying the Sunken Road and Piper’s cornfield south of it. After an obstinate contest, the Brigade succeeded in dislodging the Confederates from the Sunken Road and, having repelled several attempts to turn its flanks, advanced to the high ground overlooking Piper’s house, where it was halted by command of General Richardson.

September 21 – October 29 Duty at Harper’s Ferry, W. Va.
October 16-17 Reconnaissance to Charlestown
October 29-November 17 Advance up Loudon Valley and movement to Falmouth, Va.
December 12-15
Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment lost 200 of the 270 men engaged. Captain Welcome Crafts of Company B was shot in the left leg. It was testified that bodies of the men of the 5th New Hampshire, along with those of the 69th New York and 53rd Pennsylvania, had advanced closest to the stone wall beneath Marye’s Heights.

December 14 Captain Charles E. Hapgood of Company I was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Richard Cross of Company K was promoted to major.
1863
January 20-24 Burnside’s Second Campaign, “Mud March”
February-April Duty at Falmouth
April 27-May 6 Chancellorsville Campaign
May 1-5
Battle of Chancellorsville

Major Cross was wounded in the chest by a shell fragment.

May Colonel Cross took command of the brigade, and Lieutenant Colonel Charles E. Hapgood took command of the regiment
June 9
Battle of Brandy Station

Reconnaissance to Rappahannock, commanded by Colonel Edward E. Cross. The regiment was temporarily attached to a composite brigade supporting the Cavalry Corps.

June 13-July 24 Gettysburg Campaign
July 1-3
Battle of Gettysburg

When Colonel Cross was mortally wounded by a Confederate sharpshooter, Lt. Colonel Hapgood pointed out the man to Sergeant Charles Phelps, who dropped the Rebel. Phelps, in turn, was himself mortally wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Hapgood would be promoted to colonel and Major Cross to lieutenant colonel effective July 3.

From the monument:

Here July 2nd, 1863 from 5 p.m. till 7 the 5th N.H. Vols. stood and fought. Total engaged 182. Killed or mortally wounded 31. Total killed and wounded 81.

On this spot fell mortally wounded Edward C. Cross, Col. 5th N.H. Vols. Comdg. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 2nd Corps, July 2nd, 1863

Killed or mortally wounded: 2nd Lieut. Ruel G. Austin; Sergeants Oscar D. Allen, Samuel Dolbear, Charles H. Phelps, William B. Welch; Corporals Charles F. Burrell, Edwin B. Cilley, George H. Hackett, Warren M. Parker, George W. Sylvester, Edward G. F. Stinson, Joseph Tricky; Privates Byron Bennett, Horace Bolii, Joesph Bond Jr., George H. Bucknam, James Burns, Joseph Craig, Charles A. Damon, Lucius Feeney, Andrew J. Foss, Samuel R. Green, Charles Kimball, George Kimball, Charles A. Lovejoy, Nathan B. Osmer, Eliph. B. W. Stevens, Roland Taylor, Nathan B. Thompson, Otis Thompson

The State of New Hampshire erected this monument July 2nd, 1886 to commemorate the valor of her sons.”

July 26-August 3 Moved to Concord, N.H., Dept. of the East for duty at Draft Rendezvous. The regiment added 400 men to its roster, reaching a strength of 800. But only 80 of these were volunteers, the rest being bounty men who began deserting almost immediately.
November 8-13 Moved to Point Lookout, Md. and duty there guarding prisoners. Attached to Marston’s Command, Point Lookout, Md.
1864
May 27-June 1 Moved to Cold Harbor, Va., attached to 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac
June 3
Battle of Cold Harbor

The regiment successfully carried the Confederate defenses in its charge, capturing two guns and 125 prisoners. But the units on both flanks had failed and it was forced to retreat, losing 202 out of the 577 men engaged.

June 16
First Assault on Petersburg, Va.

Colonel Hapgood was shot in his right arm.

June 22-23 Jerusalem Plank Road
July 27-28 Deep Bottom, north of James River
July 30 Mine Explosion, Petersburg (Reserve)
August 4 Lieutenant Colonel Cross was cashiered for “disobedience of orders and breach of arrest”
August 13-20 Demonstration north of James River
August 14-18 Strawberry Plains
August 25 Ream’s Station
September 6 Captain Welcome Crafts, who had been in command of the Point Lookout prison camp, was promoted to major.
October 12 Non-Veterans mustered out
October 16 Colonel Hapgood mustered out.
October 28 Major Crafts was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Thomas Livermore to major.
December 9-10 Reconnaissance to Hatcher’s Run
1865
February 5-7 Dabney’s Mills, Hatcher’s Run
February 21 Richard E. Cross was commissioned colonel, but his commission was revoked.
March 13 Lieutenant Colonel Crafts was breveted colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct.
March 25 Watkins’ House
March 28-April 9 Appomattox Campaign
March 29-30 On line of Hatcher’s and Gravelly Runs
March 31 Hatcher’s Run or Boydton Road and White Oak Road
April 2 Sutherland Station; Fall of Petersburg
April 6 Saylor’s Creek
April 7 High Bridge and Farmville
April 9
Appomattox Court House

Surrender of Lee and his army.

April 29 Brevet Colonel Welcome A. Crafts was commissioned colonel.
May 2-12 Moved to Washington, D.C.
May 23 Grand Review
July 28 Mustered out
August 8 Discharged